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68 terms

Ichthy2

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max O2 a fish can take up (VO2 max) - basal metabolic rate (VO2 standard)
metabolic scope
habitat selection, regulatory behaviors and seasonal migration
3 examples of behavioral thermoregulation (used by ectotherms)
Rete Mirabile
place between cutaneous and swimming muscles in endothermic fish where warm venus blood from swimming muscle and cold artery blood from gills come into close contact and countercurrent heat exchange warms artery blood as it moves towards inner fish
water conducts heat faster and has greater heat capacity
water vs. air. Why is it so much harder to thermoregulate in water?
gills cutaneous vessels rete mirabile muscle
what is the circulatory pattern for endothermic fish
enzymes function properly at certain ion concentrations
why is there a need for osmoregulation?
osmosis and diffusion
what are the 2 challanges in osmoregulation?
hypoosmotic
fish that lose water and gain salt.Blood osmolarity is less than that in water
hyperomotic
fish that gain water and loose salt. Blood osmolarity is greater than water
hyperosmotic
fish that are constantly flooded with water and are trying to gain salts
stenohaline
most fish are ________, bc they have limited osmoregulatory abilities
euryhaline
fish that can osmoregulate over a wide range of environmental salinities. Estuarine and diadromous species
osmol
mole of solute per L of water
hypoosmotic
osmoregulatory strategy for marine bony fish
hypoosmotic
salt elimination osmoreg. strategy
alpha
Cl cell type that excrete monovalent ions/elimiate salts from fish
hyperosmotic
freshwater bony fish osmoregulatory strategy
hyperosmotic
salt retention osmoreg. strategy
hagfish
the only known vertebrate osmoconformer
beta
Cl cells in freshwater bony fish that retain salt
TMAO
urea is converted to ____ that protects enzymes of elasmobranchs from high organic salt concentrations
rectal gland
highly vascular organ in elasmobranchs that actively transports NaCl from blood and carries to intestine
organic salts (mostly urea)
form of ions that makes elasmobranchs hyperosmotic
mechanoreception
1st (far field) sense to activate
mechanoreception
lateral line and ear work togeather to detect sound, vibration and displacement of water
lateral line
row of sensory pores that allows fish to detect low frequency vibrations
inner ear
aids in mechanoreception by detecting higher-frequency vibrations or sound
neuromasts
sensory hair cells. Ones that are randomly distributed around head are independent from canal system
cupula
portion of neuromast that is displaced by water and bends hair cells
Pars superior
portion of inner ear that contains utricle chamber that encloses lapillus otolith
utricle
chamber in inner ear that encloses otolith
lapillus otolith
part of inner ear that detects gravity
pars inferior
portion of inner ear that contains saccule and lagena chambers
sagitta and astericus
otoliths that detect sound
kinocilium
one large hair on each hair cell of inner ear that interacts with smaller hairs
sterocilia
smaller, numerous hairs on hair cell
stimulatory
deflection of sterocilia towards kinocilium are...
inhibitory
deflection of sterocilia away from kinocilium are ...
parallax
the bending of light in water
97.2
degree in which tressteral objects are compressed when viewing from underwater... "Snells window"
otolith
denser than body tissue so displaced less than body by sound vibrations
otolith
touch sterocilia on hair cells and trigger auditory nerve
cornea
part of eye in fishes that is very thin bc they have no need to bend light
pupil
gap in irus of fish eye
iris
controls the amount of light entering eye. can be adjusted in sharks
retna
contains photoreceptors/where vision occurs
adipose eyelid
fatty tissue in bony fish that encases eye and reduces drag
nictitating membrane
semi-opaque covering that can move up to protect cornea in some elasmobranchs
Rod
photoreceptor in retna that detects low light levels and is insensitive to color
Cone
photoreceptor in retna that detects bright light and color
red
cones that detect 600nm wavethength
green
cones that detect 530nm
blue
cones that detect 460nm
UV
cones that detect 380nm
nocturnal
species type that has high rod:cone ratios
diurnal
species tyope that has low rod:cone ratio
B cone
deep sea species (ex. hatchetfish 1000m) are most likely to have only ___________ photoreceptors
surface
species (like barracuda) that are most likely to have R G and B cone receptors
chemoreception
detection of dissolved chemicals in water
olfaction and gustation
2 seperate divisions of chemoreception
nare
olfaction receptor organ that is a blind nasal opening
olfactory rosette
highly folded, receptor rich portion of olfactory that recives water from nare
ampullary
electroreceptors in shallow canals filled with conductive gel that detect weak, low frequency signals emitted by prey
tuberous
active electroreceptors that are seen in fish that generate their own electrical feilds
tuberous
electroreceptors that are located in epidermal depressions and are sensitive to high frequency currents
jamming avoidance response (JAR)
adaptation in gymnotiform fishes that produce electric feilds to adopt non overlapping frequencies to avoid gamming of electrolocation signals
magnetoreception
sensing the earths magnetic feild, evidence for this in fish is behavioral
magnetite
iron oxide with magnetic properties that is biomineralized in skulls of tunas and salmon