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American History Ch. 8
Terms in this set (31)
Second Great Awakening
A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
a new era of religious leaders who preached and wrote books denoucing the evils of popular entertainment and alcohol
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Henry david Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
a group's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination)
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831, observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages and disadvantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
New England teacher and author who advocated for the improved treatment of the mentally ill
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
the act of abolishing a system or practice or institution (especially abolishing slavery)
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
one of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement. escaped from slavery in maryland. he was a great thinker and speaker. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
The North Star
antislavery newspaper published by Fredrick Douglass
Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slaves holders abd familes. Turner caught and executed on Nov.11, 1831. Slave states stricker control on slave population.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
cult of domesticity
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
Abolitionists and suffragettes. The sisters came from South Carolina in an aristocratic family, with an Episcopalian judge who owned slaves father. Both sisters became abolitionists, and after converting to the Quaker faith, they joined Society of Friends. In 1835, Angela wrote an anti-slavery letter to Abolitionist leader William Lloyd Garrison, who published it in, The Liberator. They spoke at abolitionist meetings. In 1837, Angelina was invited to be the first woman to speak at the Massachusetts State Legislature. Sarah and Angelina Grimke wrote Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes (1837) - objecting to male opposition to their anti-slavery activities.
campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
already considered crazy for educating blacks, this school in Ohio began educating women in 1837; (see the section on Finney for more info)
A woman who challenging the taboo of professional women. She graduated from medical college, thereby proving that women are able to do what men can.
An American women's rights and temperance advocate. She presented her views in her own monthly paper, The Lily, which she began publishing in 1849. When Amelia was 22, she married a lawyer by the name of Dexter Bloomer. One of the major causes promoted by Amelia was a change in dress standards for women so that they would be less restrictive.
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
This was the way form of work of the rural classes in which the costumer would give the worker materials and the worker would create the desirable product
a group's refusal to work in protest against low pay or bad work conditions
National Trades' Union
founded in 1834 by delegates from six cities, and in 1836 printers and cordwainers (makers of high quality shoes and boots) set up their own national craft unions.
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