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Psychology - Chapter 12
Terms in this set (68)
What is emotion?
Adaptive response that supports survival
What are the three components of emotion?
1. Bodily arousal
2. Expressive behavior
3. Conscious experiences
What do emotions come from?
Perceptions that stem from our schema
What is a complex set of physiological responses to stimuli?
What two questions do the emotion theories address?
1. Does physiological arousal come before or after emotional feelings?
2. How do feeling and condition interact?
What are the three emotion theories?
1. The James-Lange Theory
2. The Cannon-Bard Theory
3. The Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory
What three things are the emotion theories based on?
Arousal, cognition, and behavior
What is the main idea of the James-Lange Theory?
Arousal comes before emotion (behavior before feeling)
Which emotion theory states that our experience of emotion involves awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli?
What is an example of the James-Lange Theory?
We observe our heart racing after a threat and then feel afraid
What is the main idea of the Cannon-Bard Theory?
Arousal and emotion happen at the same time
What emotion theory states that emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion?
What emotion theory states that human body responses run parallel to the cognitive responses rather than causing them?
What is an example of the Cannon-Bard Theory?
Our heart races at the same time that we feel afraid
What is the equation for the Schachter- Singer Two-Factor Theory?
Arousal + Label = Emotion
According to the Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory, what are the two ingredients of emotions?
1. Physical arousal
2. Cognitive appraisal
What does arousal fuel in the Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory?
What does cognitive channel in the Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory?
What emotion theory claims that emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of arousal?
Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory
What is an example of the Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory?
We may interpret our arousal as fear or excitement, depending on the context
What emotion theory is the spillover effect a part of?
Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory
What is the spillover effect?
Spillover arousal from one event to the next
What does the spillover effect influence?
What is a polygraph also known as?
What does a polygraph measure?
What type of cues are more easily detected than deceiving expressions?
What three things can people often detect as far as expressing emotion?
Nonverbal cues and threats, and sign of status
As far as expressing emotion, how do women tend to be?
Read emotional cues more easily and be more empathetic and express more emotion with their faces
What do people attribute female emotionality to?
What do people attribute male emotionality to?
What is empathy?
Searching for emotion
What gender is more empathetic?
What is anger?
Negative arousal provoked by something unjustified
What does anger lead to?
What is anger turned inward?
What are the three main causes of anger?
- In "fight or flight", anger triggers fight
- Unjustified behavior
- Smaller frustrations and blameless annoyances
What is catharsis?
Emotional release through aggressive energy
What three things happen when we don't/can't release our anger appropriately?
1. Chronic hostility is linked to heart disease
2. Emotional catharsis does not reduce anger
3. Expressing anger can make us angrier
How do happier people perceive the world?
Do happy people have high or low self-esteem?
What does a state of happiness influence?
All facets of life
What is the feel-good, do-good phenomenon?
People are helpful when they're already in a good mod
What is subjective well-being?
- Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
- Used with measures of objective well-being to evaluate people's quality of life
What is positive psychology?
The scientific study of human flourishing, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive
What did Martin Seligman focus on?
Building virtues and strengths
What is stress?
The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events (stressors) that we appraise as threatening, motivating, or challenging
What do men do when it comes to stress?
What do women do when it comes to stress?
What is a stressor?
A stress-producing event or situation
What is general adaptation syndrome?
Concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases
What are the three phases of general adaptation syndrome?
1. Alarm reaction
What happens in the alarm reaction stage of general adaptation syndrome?
The sympathetic nervous system is activated and fight or flight mindset kicks in
What happens during the resistance stage of general adaptation syndrome?
- Body begins to react to stress and meets the situation
- Adrenal glands are triggered
What happens during the exhaustion stage of general adaptation syndrome?
Body becomes susceptible to illness
What are the four ways in which stress affects our immune system?
1. Vulnerable to common cold
2. Vaccinations are less effective
3. Heart attacks are common
4. Slower surgical wound healing
What are type a people like?
Competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone
What are type b people like?
Easygoing and relaxed
What are type d people like?
Suppress negative emotion to avoid social disapproval
What is coping?
Alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
What is learned helplessness?
The hopelessness and passive resignation one learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
What are the three parts of the process of learned helplessness?
Uncontrolled bad events -> perceived lack of control -> generalized helpless behavior
Who discovered learn helplessness?
What is external locus of control?
Believing that chance or outside forces control one's fate
What is internal locus of control?
Believing one controls their own destiny
What does exercise, relaxation, and faith do?
Helps us gather inner strength and lessen stress effects
What does aerobic exercise have the same effect on the body as?
What does relaxation and meditation reduce the chance of?
What does faith and religious activity promote?
Good lifestyle and longer life
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