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test on 11.1.10


individual, small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers


large compound formed by many monomers


process in which monomers are joined to form polymers
-when the monomers are joined, water is removed in the process


process in which polymers are broken apart and separated into individual monomers
-when polymer is broken apart, water is added in the process


compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; a polymer; used as main source of energy; also used for structural purposes


single sugar molecules (monomer) such as glucose, fructose, galactose; (part of carbohydrate)


large macromolecule formed from monosaccharide; used for structure/support (such as cellulose in cell walls); used for storage (such as plant starch and glycogen, or animal starch, which is used to store excess sugar); (part of carbohydrate)


2 subunits (2 monomers); galactose+glucose=lactose;
glucose+frucose=sucrose (table sugar)


compound made of carbon and hydrogen; fats, oils, waxes; not polymer; used for energy; storing energy; insulating; cushioning; in cell membranes; created by glycerol and fatty acids


make up a cell's membrame;
head-hydrophilic-loves water
tail-hydrophobid-doesn't interact w/ water, made of fat


polymer; are important in virtually everything an organism does; made of amino acids- controls rate of reactions; regulates cell processes; form muscles/bones; transport substances into/out of cells; fight disease
ex. enzymes, hemoglobin(red blood cells), collagen(gives skin elasticity)

amino acid

monomer that makes up proteins; more than 20 types found in nature, identical, but formed in different combinations to make different proteins

nucleic acid

macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus; store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; polymer


only two types of nucleic acids:
ribonucleic acid
deoxyribonucleic acid


monomer that makes up nucleic acids; consists of 3 parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate, and a nitogenous base; gained from food


the basic unit of life

cell theory

1.all living things are composed of cells
2.cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things (or cells are the basic unit of life) cells are produced from preexisting cells


cells that contain nuclei


cells that do not contain nuclei

cell membrane

-plant, animal, bacterial
-proteins, phospholipids
-regulates what enters/exits the cell

cell wall

-plant, bacterial
-protein, cellulose
-provides support and protection for the cell

nuclear membrane

-plant, animal
-protein, phospholipid
-regulates what enters/exits the nucleus


-plant, animal
-protein, phospholipid, DNA, RNA
-contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules


-plant, animal
-RNA, protein
-small, dense region in the nucleus in which the assembly of ribosomes begins


-plant, bacterial
-protein, chlorophyll, lipid
-capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy through photosynthesis


-animal, plant
-protein, lipid
-convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds more convenient for the cell to use

Golgi apparatus

-animal, plant
-protein, phospholipid
-modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell

endoplasmic reticulum

-animal, plant
-protein, phospholipid
-lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell


-plant, animal, bacterial
-proteins, RNA
-where proteins are assembled


-animal, plant, some bacterial
-protein, phospholipid
-store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates


-used for feeding and movement; hairlike projections


-whip-like structures used for movement

passive transport

molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration; no energy is required


when molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, equilibrium is achieved when the concentrations are equal

active transport

molecule move from an area of low concentration to high concentration; energy is required

lipid bilayer

double-layered sheet that composes nearly all cell membranes


mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume

facilitated diffusion

diffusion in which particles that are too large to pass through the cell membrane pass through a protein (or a carrier, also called transport protein) instead; no energy required; transport proteins specific to the type of molecule they transport


active transport; process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane. pocket then breaks loose from the outer portion of the cell membrane and forms a vacuole in the cytoplasm; used to move large amounts into a cell; plant cell cannot do this


active transport; membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell; used to move large amounts out of a cell; plant cell cannot do this


type of endocytosis; cell engulfs a food particle (a solid) by extending the cell membrane


type of endocytosis; cell engulfs a liquid by pockets that form along a cell membrane, fill with liquid, and pinch off to form vacuoles within the cell


passive diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane; diffusion of water from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution


a combination of a solute and a solvent


a liquid that dissolves...


a substance that gets dissolved by...


side with greater concentration of solutes


side with less concentration of solutes


two solutions equal in strength

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