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process in which monomers are joined to form polymers
-when the monomers are joined, water is removed in the process
process in which polymers are broken apart and separated into individual monomers
-when polymer is broken apart, water is added in the process
compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; a polymer; used as main source of energy; also used for structural purposes
single sugar molecules (monomer) such as glucose, fructose, galactose; (part of carbohydrate)
large macromolecule formed from monosaccharide; used for structure/support (such as cellulose in cell walls); used for storage (such as plant starch and glycogen, or animal starch, which is used to store excess sugar); (part of carbohydrate)
2 subunits (2 monomers); galactose+glucose=lactose;
glucose+frucose=sucrose (table sugar)
compound made of carbon and hydrogen; fats, oils, waxes; not polymer; used for energy; storing energy; insulating; cushioning; in cell membranes; created by glycerol and fatty acids
make up a cell's membrame;
tail-hydrophobid-doesn't interact w/ water, made of fat
polymer; are important in virtually everything an organism does; made of amino acids- controls rate of reactions; regulates cell processes; form muscles/bones; transport substances into/out of cells; fight disease
ex. enzymes, hemoglobin(red blood cells), collagen(gives skin elasticity)
monomer that makes up proteins; more than 20 types found in nature, identical, but formed in different combinations to make different proteins
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus; store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; polymer
monomer that makes up nucleic acids; consists of 3 parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate, and a nitogenous base; gained from food
1.all living things are composed of cells
2.cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things (or cells are the basic unit of life)
3.new cells are produced from preexisting cells
-plant, animal, bacterial
-regulates what enters/exits the cell
-protein, phospholipid, DNA, RNA
-contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules
-small, dense region in the nucleus in which the assembly of ribosomes begins
-protein, chlorophyll, lipid
-capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy through photosynthesis
-convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds more convenient for the cell to use
-modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell
-lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell
-animal, plant, some bacterial
-store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration; no energy is required
when molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, equilibrium is achieved when the concentrations are equal
molecule move from an area of low concentration to high concentration; energy is required
diffusion in which particles that are too large to pass through the cell membrane pass through a protein (or a carrier, also called transport protein) instead; no energy required; transport proteins specific to the type of molecule they transport
active transport; process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane. pocket then breaks loose from the outer portion of the cell membrane and forms a vacuole in the cytoplasm; used to move large amounts into a cell; plant cell cannot do this
active transport; membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell; used to move large amounts out of a cell; plant cell cannot do this
type of endocytosis; cell engulfs a food particle (a solid) by extending the cell membrane
type of endocytosis; cell engulfs a liquid by pockets that form along a cell membrane, fill with liquid, and pinch off to form vacuoles within the cell
passive diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane; diffusion of water from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution
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