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49 terms

Cell 1 Test

test on 11.1.10
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monomer
individual, small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
polymer
large compound formed by many monomers
dehydration
process in which monomers are joined to form polymers
-when the monomers are joined, water is removed in the process
hydrolysis
process in which polymers are broken apart and separated into individual monomers
-when polymer is broken apart, water is added in the process
carbohydrate
compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; a polymer; used as main source of energy; also used for structural purposes
monosaccharide
single sugar molecules (monomer) such as glucose, fructose, galactose; (part of carbohydrate)
polysaccharide
large macromolecule formed from monosaccharide; used for structure/support (such as cellulose in cell walls); used for storage (such as plant starch and glycogen, or animal starch, which is used to store excess sugar); (part of carbohydrate)
disaccharide
2 subunits (2 monomers); galactose+glucose=lactose;
glucose+frucose=sucrose (table sugar)
lipid
compound made of carbon and hydrogen; fats, oils, waxes; not polymer; used for energy; storing energy; insulating; cushioning; in cell membranes; created by glycerol and fatty acids
phospholipid
make up a cell's membrame;
head-hydrophilic-loves water
tail-hydrophobid-doesn't interact w/ water, made of fat
protein
polymer; are important in virtually everything an organism does; made of amino acids- controls rate of reactions; regulates cell processes; form muscles/bones; transport substances into/out of cells; fight disease
ex. enzymes, hemoglobin(red blood cells), collagen(gives skin elasticity)
amino acid
monomer that makes up proteins; more than 20 types found in nature, identical, but formed in different combinations to make different proteins
nucleic acid
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus; store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; polymer
RNA and DNA
only two types of nucleic acids:
ribonucleic acid
deoxyribonucleic acid
nucleotides
monomer that makes up nucleic acids; consists of 3 parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate, and a nitogenous base; gained from food
cell
the basic unit of life
cell theory
1.all living things are composed of cells
2.cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things (or cells are the basic unit of life)
3.new cells are produced from preexisting cells
eukaryotes
cells that contain nuclei
prokaryotes
cells that do not contain nuclei
cell membrane
-plant, animal, bacterial
-proteins, phospholipids
-regulates what enters/exits the cell
cell wall
-plant, bacterial
-protein, cellulose
-provides support and protection for the cell
nuclear membrane
-plant, animal
-protein, phospholipid
-regulates what enters/exits the nucleus
nucleus
-plant, animal
-protein, phospholipid, DNA, RNA
-contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules
nucleolus
-plant, animal
-RNA, protein
-small, dense region in the nucleus in which the assembly of ribosomes begins
chloroplast
-plant, bacterial
-protein, chlorophyll, lipid
-capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy through photosynthesis
mitochondria
-animal, plant
-protein, lipid
-convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds more convenient for the cell to use
Golgi apparatus
-animal, plant
-protein, phospholipid
-modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell
endoplasmic reticulum
-animal, plant
-protein, phospholipid
-lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell
ribosome
-plant, animal, bacterial
-proteins, RNA
-where proteins are assembled
vacuole
-animal, plant, some bacterial
-protein, phospholipid
-store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
cilia
-bacterial
-protein
-used for feeding and movement; hairlike projections
flagella
-bacterial
-protein
-whip-like structures used for movement
passive transport
molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration; no energy is required
diffusion
when molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, equilibrium is achieved when the concentrations are equal
active transport
molecule move from an area of low concentration to high concentration; energy is required
lipid bilayer
double-layered sheet that composes nearly all cell membranes
concentration
mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
facilitated diffusion
diffusion in which particles that are too large to pass through the cell membrane pass through a protein (or a carrier, also called transport protein) instead; no energy required; transport proteins specific to the type of molecule they transport
endocytosis
active transport; process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane. pocket then breaks loose from the outer portion of the cell membrane and forms a vacuole in the cytoplasm; used to move large amounts into a cell; plant cell cannot do this
exocytosis
active transport; membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell; used to move large amounts out of a cell; plant cell cannot do this
phagocytosis
type of endocytosis; cell engulfs a food particle (a solid) by extending the cell membrane
pinocytosis
type of endocytosis; cell engulfs a liquid by pockets that form along a cell membrane, fill with liquid, and pinch off to form vacuoles within the cell
osmosis
passive diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane; diffusion of water from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution
solution
a combination of a solute and a solvent
solvent
a liquid that dissolves...
solute
a substance that gets dissolved by...
hypertonic
side with greater concentration of solutes
hypotonic
side with less concentration of solutes
isotonic
two solutions equal in strength