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A&P Midterm Review
Terms in this set (90)
Babies are obligatory _____ ______.
What is the typical vocal tract length for women?
What is the typical vocal tract length for men?
What is the typical vocal tract length for children?
_____ is the start of the speech process.
Speech takes place on ______.
Pitch and voice are dependent on what 3 things?
- the frequency of vocal fold vibration
- the pattern or mode of vocal fold vibration
- the configuration of the vocal tract
The vocal folds are _____ during quiet breathing.
What are the systems required for speech production?
What are the two phases of the onset of phonation?
True or False: The vocal folds must be completely aDducted in order to initiate phonation.
During prephonation, the vocal folds move from an (abducted/adducted) position to either an (abducted/adducted) or partially (abducted/adducted) position.
abducted; adducted; adducted
What are the two basic laryngeal adjustments?
- medial compression
- longitudinal tension
____ ____ is the force with which or the extent to which the vocal folds are brought together at midline.
The _____ is musculocartilaginous and includes the vocal folds.
What are the three paired cartilages of the larynx?
What are the three unpaired cartilages of the larynx?
The _____ cartilage is the largest laryngeal cartilage.
The _____ cartilage is the lowermost border or base of the larynx.
What two things provides the framework for the phonatory system?
- hyoid bone
movement away from the medial plane; separation of two structures
movement toward the medial plane; bringing together of two structures
diminished or deficient
the process of swallowing
the process of chewing
one structure is situated closer to the front of the body than another structure
one structure is situated closer to the back of the body than another structure
external or coming from the outside
internal or completely within
situated above or in an upward direction
situated below or in a downward direction
body lying face down
body lying face up
situated lengthwise or in the direction of the axis of the body or any of its parts
body is upright with the palms & arms facing forwards
The versatility of the human voice is dependent on what three things?
- medial compression
- longitudinal tension
- variable air supply
What are the 3 phases of the vibratory cycle of the vocal folds?
- opening (longest)
- closed (shortest)
The muscles of the larynx are divided into what 3 categories?
What are the 5 intrinsic muscles of the larynx?
- posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA)
- lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA)
- arytenoids (transverse & oblique)
What are the 3 extrinsic muscles of the larynx?
- inferior constrictor (inferior pharyngeal constrictor)
What are the two divisions of the supplementary muscles of the larynx?
infrahyoids & suprahyoids
What are the infrahyoids?
What are the suprahyoids?
What is the largest intrinsic tongue muscle?
What is the strongest and largest extrinsic tongue muscle?
What are three problems when attempting to view the larynx?
- location; deep in neck, out of view
- interior is dark; needs illumination
- speed; vocal folds vibrate too quickly
What are the four intrinsic muscles of the tongue?
- inferior longitudinal
- superior longitudinal
What are the four extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
What two cartilages are embedded within the aryepiglottic folds?
The _____ helps to protect the airway and is usually easy to spot and acts as a point of orientation on anatomical diagrams.
What are the two types of endoscopy?
- peroral endoscopy
What is the continuum of vocal attacks?
- simultaneous attack (normal)
- breathy attack (hypo)
- glottal attack (hyper)
pertaining to the cheek
pertaining to the cartilage
pertaining to the nose
pertaining to the palate, typically the velum
pertaining to the chin
pertaining to the lips
pertaining to the cheekbone
pertaining to the tongue
pertaining to the mandible
pertaining to the velum
_____ _____ clears the breathing airway via powerful and violent explosion and keeps us alive. Too much of this can damage the vocal folds. Non productive coughs can cause _____ damage over time.
reflexive coughing; cumulative
What are the bones of the facial skeleton?
- maxillae (2)
- nasal bones (2)
- palatine bones (2)
- lacrimal bones (2)
- zygomatic bones (2)
- inferior conchae (2)
How many total bones are there of the facial skeleton?
What are the bones of the cranial skeleton?
- parietal (2)
- temporal (2)
How many total bones are there of the cranial skeleton?
What bones are not included in the facial/cranial skeletons but contribute to the number of head bones?
- 3 pairs of auditory ossicles
- hyoid bone
How many total head bones are there?
What is the name of the lower jaw? The upper jaw?
What two bones form the hard palate?
maxilla and palatine
Does the mandible play a huge role in speech production?
What is the front boundary of the oral cavity?
- lips, teeth, alveolar processes of the maxilla & mandible
What is the above boundary of the oral cavity?
- hard palate & velum
What is the below boundary of the oral cavity?
- floor of the mouth (mainly the tongue)
What is the back boundary of the oral cavity?
anterior and faucial pillars (palatoglossal arch)
What are the primary biological functions of the tongue?
What provides the basis for consonant productions?
tongue & oral cavity
What provides the basis for vowel productions?
nasal cavity & resonance
What are the anatomical divisions of the tongue?
- root; posterior/attached part
- blade; upper surface, mobile part, floor of oral cavity
What are the functional divisions of the tongue?
- tongue tip
- tongue blade
- tongue body
What is the average fundamental frequency of males? Of females?
~130 Hz; ~220 Hz
When are the vocal folds at their longest?
When they are aBducted
During the vibratory cycle of the vocal folds, which edge of the vocal folds are blown apart first? (upper/lower)
What edge of the vocal folds close first during the closing phase of the vibratory cycle of the vocal folds? (upper/lower)
In normal conversation, a person is liable to produce laryngeal tones that vary in pitch over a range of almost how many octaves?
At what age do the thyroid and cricoid cartilages begin to ossify?
the early 20s
By about what age has the entire laryngeal cartilage framework turned to bone?
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