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prime number

a whole number greater than 1 whose only positive factors are 1 and itself

composite number

a whole number greater than 1 that has positive factors other than 1 and itself

prime factorization

a whole number written as the product of prime numbers

factor tree

one method of finding the prime factorization of a number using a diagram

monomial

a number, a variable, or a product of a number and one or more variables

common factor

a whole number that is a factor of two or more nonzero whole numbers

greatest common factor (GCF)

the greatest of the common factors of two or more nonzero whole numbers

relatively prime

when the GCF of two whole numbers is 1

simplest form

a fraction with a numerator and denominator that have a GCF of 1

equivalent fractions

fractions that represent the same number

multiple

the product of the number and any nonzero whole number

common multiple

a multiple that is shared by two or more numbers

least common multiple (LCM)

the least common multiple of two or more whole numbers

least common denominator (LCD)

the least common multiple of the denominators in two or more fractions

scientific notation

a method using powers of ten to write very small or very large numbers