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AP US History Chapter 14

Out of Many - Territorial Expansion of the United States
STUDY
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British Hudson Bay Company & French Canadian Rival North West Company
began exploring beyond into the west for beaver pelts
depended on cooperation with native americans
Metis
mixed-race group from marriages of European men with native women
rendezvous system
yearly trade fair held in Rocky Mountains
modeled on Indian gatherings, large affair with many nationalities
started by William Henry Ashley of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company
Jim Beckwourth
many Americans adapted well with Indians
African American who married a Crow woman and was so accepted he became a Crow chief
Jedediah Smith
first American to enter California over Sierra Nevada Mountains
showed how mountain men helped create a picture of American geography and a path for settlers to follow
Lieutenant Zebulon Pike
lead an expedition to Rocky Mountains in Colorado
example of govt financed exploration
Major Stephen Long
explored and mapped Great Plains
part of a show of force meant to frighten British fur trappers out of the west
John C. Fremont
mapped Overland trails to Oregon and California
Major John Wesley Powell
best known of post-civil war govt sponsored expeditions of the west
explored the Grand Canyon
Karl Bodmer
produced portraits of American landscapes
government wanted to glamorize and create appetite for the west
Land Ordinance of 1785
determined Western settlement, establishing basic patterns of land surveys and sale
federal government removed Indians and compensated them
Great American Desert
Great Plains - most east Indian tribes were forced to move there
Santa Fe Trail
trail opened by merchants for trading purposes following Mexico's liberalization of the formerly restrictive trading policies of Spain
crossed over Indian territory
difficult road that included Bent's Fort and frontier contact
southern Indiana territory Indians
Five Civilized Tribes - established self-governing nations that assimilated, worked with cotton, etc.
Indians West of Indian Territory
nomadic and warlike Great Plains Indians
Southwest Indians
farming peoples
John O'Sullivan
newspaperman editor of the Democratic Review who invented Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny
Americans had a God-given right to bring American democracy to other, more backwards peoples, by force if necessary; summed up pride and American zeal
other reasons for expansion
more trade with China and India
Thomas Hart Benton
Senator who advocated trade with India by way of westward expansion; pointed out how much trade would increase with expansion
Democrats opinions on expansion
Believed in expansion; feared industrialization in cities and worried about social unrest
Many were Southerners who wanted to expand their cotton
Whigs opinions on expansion
Saw economic progress in industrialization
believed government policy should develop the nation's inner policies
pioneer motives for expansion
reports promising economic opportunity, especially to farmers who had been hit by depression
many were motivated by senses of adventure
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
Missionaries coming to Oregon who were killed by Cayuse Indians, ending a time of peace with Indian tribes and triggering wars against remaining peoples
Oregon Constitution
Based on Constitution of Iowa, due to the remoteness of the frontier
Created tension between Americans and British
American & British over Oregon territory
President James K. Polk was anti-British; wanted all territory south of 54'40
Polk was willing to compromise: 49th parallel as border, with British inheriting Vancouver and moving its operations to Victoria
Dr. John McLoughlin
Hudson's Bay Company director who gave supplies to early Oregon American settlers despite orders not to due to sympathy and sense of the dangers if angry Americans outnumbered them
settlers in Oregon
first: commercial operations, frontier of inclusion
-Great Britain & US shared it as a result of Convention of 1818
-first European settlers were fur trappers & Indian wives
-next, Protestant and Catholic missionaries
-finally, midwest farmers who made up most of their permanent settlers
Overland Trails
dangerous trails leading to Oregon and California traveled by people in wagons
dangers of Overland Trails
cholera and disease, drownings
John McLoughlin
Hudson Bay Company's director who donated vital goods to the American Oregon settlers
Fifty-four or Fight
James K. Polk's slogan that declared the US would go to war if it didn't gain control of territory below Russian Alaska
Oregon border
49th parallel as US-Canada border
Canada got Vancouver and moved its operations to Victoria, ending Pacific Northwest's joint occupancy
relations with Indian tribes in Oregon
generally peaceful until Cayuse Indians killed missionaries the Whitmans, triggering a series of wars against the Indians and instituting a frontier of exclusion
policy with Spain when Mexico gained independence
American traders were welcome in Santa Fe, but the trail there was difficult
Bent's Fort
fort on the Santa Fe Trail on the Arkansas River
traded beaver skins and buffalo
large amounts of diversity and interaction; men of all nationalities
other spinoff communities subsisted by trapping, hunting, and farming - mixed frontier
Texas when Mexico gained independence from Spain
2000 Tejano residents, small outposts
communities organized around missions and forts, with cattle-raising ranchos on the outside
mestizo vanqueros
renowned for their horsemanship in old Texas towns
Comanche Indians
constantly threatened Tejanos
nomadic; excellent horsemen and raiders
nomads who followed buffalo herds; wanted to hold onto buffalo territory so raided Texas
Stephen F. Austin
son of Moses Austin, who inherited territory granted by Mexico
differences between Texan frontier and others
Texan settlement was fully legal
community populated with handpicked settlers, prosperous southern slaveowners and slaves
empresarios
Agents like Stephen F. Austin who received a land grant from the Spanish or Mexican government in return for organizing settlements
American settlers in Texas cultural
had enclaves - communities that did not assimilate with the Mexicans
unable to set up governments
San Antonio
provincial government center in Texas
a handful of wealthy Americans married Tejano elites, including James Bowie, who became a Mexican merchant
Three Texan communities
Comanche (nomads, raiders), Tejano (ranchos and missions in the south) and American (farmers in the eastern and south central)
balance among three communities in Texas broken
centrists gained control of the government in Mexico City and decided to exercise control over the northern province; Mexican government took complete control, leading to American discussion of rebellion
War between Mexican government and American-Texans
Defeat at the Alamo
Mexican Santa Anna army defeated by Houston's men
lead to a treaty fixing southern boundary of Texas at Rio Grande - Mexican congress refused to recognize Texan independence
Henry Clay's stance on Texas
candidate for Whigs in 1844
noncommital stance - favored annexation but only if Mexico approved (which they wouldn't)
Democratic Party 1944 Election
Democrats nominated James K. Polk, who called for re-annexation of Texas immediately
Won the 1944 election
Whigs in Election of 1844
Nominated Henry Clay (noncommital stance)
lost many votes to the antislavery Liberty Party
General Zachary Taylor
war hero sent by Polk to Texas in the beginning of the war
reasons for Mexican-American War
Mexicans broke democratic relations
wanted to expand through the continent
John C. Fremont in Mexican American War
federally commissioned to enter California - ordered to leave by authorities - came back to assist in Bear Flag Revolt
John Slidell
Polk's secret envoy sent to Mexico with an offer of $30 million or more for the Rio Grande Border in Texas and Mexico's provinces of New Mexico or California
General Winfield Scott
captured the city of Veracruz
six months of brutal fighting against Mexicans on battlefields
Nicholas Trist
special envoy who delivered Polk's terms for peace & developed Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
Mexico ceded California and New Mexico and accepted Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas
US agreed to pay Mexico $15 million
Groups opposing expansion
Northern Whigs & Southerners (including Calhoun) who realized Mexicans would have to be offered territorial government
Gadsden Purchase
addition that added 30000 square miles to US in order to make room for a southern transcontinental railroad
press and war enthusiasm
Taylor and Scott became heroes
largest meeting ever held at Lowell, Massachusetts after Taylor's Palo Alto victory
Fireworks and celebrations
Californios
Inhabitants of California - Descendants of Spanish Mexican Pioneers
Russians in California
first to penetrate the isolation of Spanish California
Fort Ross
Russians settled, leading to trade with Californians
Johann Augustus Sutter
Swiss who settled in California in 1939 and became a Mexican citizen
Had a land grant in Sacramento Valley with Sutter's Fort
Opened up areas for Americans to settle
Bear Flag Revolt
Americans in California rebelled and declared their independence from Mexico
James Marshall
carpenter to first notice Gold in the Gold Rush
forty-niners
participants in the Gold Rush
mostly American
Chinese during the Gold Rush
formed Chinatowns
threat of economic competition: special tax imposed on foreign miners
Mine Camps
dirty - miners lived in tents or hovels, mostly young, unmarried and unsuccessful
more reliable way to earn money: supply the miners
Gold Rush negative effects
extermination of California Indians
Damage to Californios
racial animosity, towards Chinese in particular
David Wilmot
Democratic congressman from Pennsylvania
proposed the Wilmot Provisio
Wilmot Provisio
David Wilmot
proposed slavery be banned in all territories acquired from Mexico
triggered first breakdown of national party systems
deleted from military bills, but raised pressing conflict of slavery
Liberty Party stance against slavery
uncompromising
called for complete end of admission to slave states, abolish slave trade, end slavery in Columbia, denying office to all slaveowners, forbidding slave use on construction projects
Free-Soil Party
people who were anti-slavery but were not radical enough for Liberty Party
shifted focus to ways slavery posed a threat to northern expansion
said northern farmers would be forced to compete against large planters using slave labor
many were antiblack: wanted to ban blacks from all new territories
"whitesmanism"
Election of 1848
Lewis Cass (Democrat) vs. General Zachary Taylor
vagueness between politicians
Disaffected Democrats and Whigs joined to support the Free-Soil Party under Van Buren
Lewis Cass
Democratic candidate in Election of 1848
proposed to apply popular sovereignty (territorial residents decide slave's fate)
popular sovereignty
a solution to slavery crisis suggested by Michigan senator Lewis Cass by which territorial residents, not Congress, would decide slavery's fate
deliberately vague (when would slaves decide this?)
Zachary Taylor as a presidential candidate
War hero & Louisiana slaveowner who refused to take a position on the Wilmot Proviso
said he was above sectional politics
Remember the Alamo
Texans had been holding the Alamo against a siege by Mexican troops
A brutal battle defeated the Texans, but...
This became a battle cry that rallied their remaining forces, and two months later Texas was granted its independence
Tejanos
Texas - descendants of Spanish and Mexican settlers, including rancheros and cowboys
Often assimilated with Americans
Juan Nepomuceno Seguin
Tejano leader who aided in the winning of independence for Texas, became the mayer of San Antonio
federal government role in expansion
sold land at low prices
gave away land to veterans
paid for Indian removal
committed to compensate Indian people and maintained peace with Indians
Arostook War
(1838-39), bloodless conflict over the disputed boundary between the U.S. state of Maine and the British Canadian province of New Brunswick.
Ostend Manifesto
attempted seizure of Cuba from Spain
A declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.
Walker Expedition
William Walker, a southern adventurer, tried to take Baja California from Mexico in 1853; took Nicaragua to develop a proslavery empire but collapsed when he was killed by Honduran authorities