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Out of Many - Territorial Expansion of the United States

British Hudson Bay Company & French Canadian Rival North West Company

began exploring beyond into the west for beaver pelts
depended on cooperation with native americans


mixed-race group from marriages of European men with native women

rendezvous system

yearly trade fair held in Rocky Mountains
modeled on Indian gatherings, large affair with many nationalities
started by William Henry Ashley of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company

Jim Beckwourth

many Americans adapted well with Indians
African American who married a Crow woman and was so accepted he became a Crow chief

Jedediah Smith

first American to enter California over Sierra Nevada Mountains
showed how mountain men helped create a picture of American geography and a path for settlers to follow

Lieutenant Zebulon Pike

lead an expedition to Rocky Mountains in Colorado
example of govt financed exploration

Major Stephen Long

explored and mapped Great Plains
part of a show of force meant to frighten British fur trappers out of the west

John C. Fremont

mapped Overland trails to Oregon and California

Major John Wesley Powell

best known of post-civil war govt sponsored expeditions of the west
explored the Grand Canyon

Karl Bodmer

produced portraits of American landscapes
government wanted to glamorize and create appetite for the west

Land Ordinance of 1785

determined Western settlement, establishing basic patterns of land surveys and sale
federal government removed Indians and compensated them

Great American Desert

Great Plains - most east Indian tribes were forced to move there

Santa Fe Trail

trail opened by merchants for trading purposes following Mexico's liberalization of the formerly restrictive trading policies of Spain
crossed over Indian territory
difficult road that included Bent's Fort and frontier contact

southern Indiana territory Indians

Five Civilized Tribes - established self-governing nations that assimilated, worked with cotton, etc.

Indians West of Indian Territory

nomadic and warlike Great Plains Indians

Southwest Indians

farming peoples

John O'Sullivan

newspaperman editor of the Democratic Review who invented Manifest Destiny

Manifest Destiny

Americans had a God-given right to bring American democracy to other, more backwards peoples, by force if necessary; summed up pride and American zeal

other reasons for expansion

more trade with China and India

Thomas Hart Benton

Senator who advocated trade with India by way of westward expansion; pointed out how much trade would increase with expansion

Democrats opinions on expansion

Believed in expansion; feared industrialization in cities and worried about social unrest
Many were Southerners who wanted to expand their cotton

Whigs opinions on expansion

Saw economic progress in industrialization
believed government policy should develop the nation's inner policies

pioneer motives for expansion

reports promising economic opportunity, especially to farmers who had been hit by depression
many were motivated by senses of adventure

Marcus and Narcissa Whitman

Missionaries coming to Oregon who were killed by Cayuse Indians, ending a time of peace with Indian tribes and triggering wars against remaining peoples

Oregon Constitution

Based on Constitution of Iowa, due to the remoteness of the frontier
Created tension between Americans and British

American & British over Oregon territory

President James K. Polk was anti-British; wanted all territory south of 54'40
Polk was willing to compromise: 49th parallel as border, with British inheriting Vancouver and moving its operations to Victoria

Dr. John McLoughlin

Hudson's Bay Company director who gave supplies to early Oregon American settlers despite orders not to due to sympathy and sense of the dangers if angry Americans outnumbered them

settlers in Oregon

first: commercial operations, frontier of inclusion
-Great Britain & US shared it as a result of Convention of 1818
-first European settlers were fur trappers & Indian wives
-next, Protestant and Catholic missionaries
-finally, midwest farmers who made up most of their permanent settlers

Overland Trails

dangerous trails leading to Oregon and California traveled by people in wagons

dangers of Overland Trails

cholera and disease, drownings

John McLoughlin

Hudson Bay Company's director who donated vital goods to the American Oregon settlers

Fifty-four or Fight

James K. Polk's slogan that declared the US would go to war if it didn't gain control of territory below Russian Alaska

Oregon border

49th parallel as US-Canada border
Canada got Vancouver and moved its operations to Victoria, ending Pacific Northwest's joint occupancy

relations with Indian tribes in Oregon

generally peaceful until Cayuse Indians killed missionaries the Whitmans, triggering a series of wars against the Indians and instituting a frontier of exclusion

policy with Spain when Mexico gained independence

American traders were welcome in Santa Fe, but the trail there was difficult

Bent's Fort

fort on the Santa Fe Trail on the Arkansas River
traded beaver skins and buffalo
large amounts of diversity and interaction; men of all nationalities
other spinoff communities subsisted by trapping, hunting, and farming - mixed frontier

Texas when Mexico gained independence from Spain

2000 Tejano residents, small outposts
communities organized around missions and forts, with cattle-raising ranchos on the outside

mestizo vanqueros

renowned for their horsemanship in old Texas towns

Comanche Indians

constantly threatened Tejanos
nomadic; excellent horsemen and raiders
nomads who followed buffalo herds; wanted to hold onto buffalo territory so raided Texas

Stephen F. Austin

son of Moses Austin, who inherited territory granted by Mexico

differences between Texan frontier and others

Texan settlement was fully legal
community populated with handpicked settlers, prosperous southern slaveowners and slaves


Agents like Stephen F. Austin who received a land grant from the Spanish or Mexican government in return for organizing settlements

American settlers in Texas cultural

had enclaves - communities that did not assimilate with the Mexicans
unable to set up governments

San Antonio

provincial government center in Texas
a handful of wealthy Americans married Tejano elites, including James Bowie, who became a Mexican merchant

Three Texan communities

Comanche (nomads, raiders), Tejano (ranchos and missions in the south) and American (farmers in the eastern and south central)

balance among three communities in Texas broken

centrists gained control of the government in Mexico City and decided to exercise control over the northern province; Mexican government took complete control, leading to American discussion of rebellion

War between Mexican government and American-Texans

Defeat at the Alamo
Mexican Santa Anna army defeated by Houston's men
lead to a treaty fixing southern boundary of Texas at Rio Grande - Mexican congress refused to recognize Texan independence

Henry Clay's stance on Texas

candidate for Whigs in 1844
noncommital stance - favored annexation but only if Mexico approved (which they wouldn't)

Democratic Party 1944 Election

Democrats nominated James K. Polk, who called for re-annexation of Texas immediately
Won the 1944 election

Whigs in Election of 1844

Nominated Henry Clay (noncommital stance)
lost many votes to the antislavery Liberty Party

General Zachary Taylor

war hero sent by Polk to Texas in the beginning of the war

reasons for Mexican-American War

Mexicans broke democratic relations
wanted to expand through the continent

John C. Fremont in Mexican American War

federally commissioned to enter California - ordered to leave by authorities - came back to assist in Bear Flag Revolt

John Slidell

Polk's secret envoy sent to Mexico with an offer of $30 million or more for the Rio Grande Border in Texas and Mexico's provinces of New Mexico or California

General Winfield Scott

captured the city of Veracruz
six months of brutal fighting against Mexicans on battlefields

Nicholas Trist

special envoy who delivered Polk's terms for peace & developed Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo

Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo

Mexico ceded California and New Mexico and accepted Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas
US agreed to pay Mexico $15 million

Groups opposing expansion

Northern Whigs & Southerners (including Calhoun) who realized Mexicans would have to be offered territorial government

Gadsden Purchase

addition that added 30000 square miles to US in order to make room for a southern transcontinental railroad

press and war enthusiasm

Taylor and Scott became heroes
largest meeting ever held at Lowell, Massachusetts after Taylor's Palo Alto victory
Fireworks and celebrations


Inhabitants of California - Descendants of Spanish Mexican Pioneers

Russians in California

first to penetrate the isolation of Spanish California

Fort Ross

Russians settled, leading to trade with Californians

Johann Augustus Sutter

Swiss who settled in California in 1939 and became a Mexican citizen
Had a land grant in Sacramento Valley with Sutter's Fort
Opened up areas for Americans to settle

Bear Flag Revolt

Americans in California rebelled and declared their independence from Mexico

James Marshall

carpenter to first notice Gold in the Gold Rush


participants in the Gold Rush
mostly American

Chinese during the Gold Rush

formed Chinatowns
threat of economic competition: special tax imposed on foreign miners

Mine Camps

dirty - miners lived in tents or hovels, mostly young, unmarried and unsuccessful
more reliable way to earn money: supply the miners

Gold Rush negative effects

extermination of California Indians
Damage to Californios
racial animosity, towards Chinese in particular

David Wilmot

Democratic congressman from Pennsylvania
proposed the Wilmot Provisio

Wilmot Provisio

David Wilmot
proposed slavery be banned in all territories acquired from Mexico
triggered first breakdown of national party systems
deleted from military bills, but raised pressing conflict of slavery

Liberty Party stance against slavery

called for complete end of admission to slave states, abolish slave trade, end slavery in Columbia, denying office to all slaveowners, forbidding slave use on construction projects

Free-Soil Party

people who were anti-slavery but were not radical enough for Liberty Party
shifted focus to ways slavery posed a threat to northern expansion
said northern farmers would be forced to compete against large planters using slave labor
many were antiblack: wanted to ban blacks from all new territories

Election of 1848

Lewis Cass (Democrat) vs. General Zachary Taylor
vagueness between politicians
Disaffected Democrats and Whigs joined to support the Free-Soil Party under Van Buren

Lewis Cass

Democratic candidate in Election of 1848
proposed to apply popular sovereignty (territorial residents decide slave's fate)

popular sovereignty

a solution to slavery crisis suggested by Michigan senator Lewis Cass by which territorial residents, not Congress, would decide slavery's fate
deliberately vague (when would slaves decide this?)

Zachary Taylor as a presidential candidate

War hero & Louisiana slaveowner who refused to take a position on the Wilmot Proviso
said he was above sectional politics

Remember the Alamo

Texans had been holding the Alamo against a siege by Mexican troops
A brutal battle defeated the Texans, but...
This became a battle cry that rallied their remaining forces, and two months later Texas was granted its independence


Texas - descendants of Spanish and Mexican settlers, including rancheros and cowboys
Often assimilated with Americans

Juan Nepomuceno Seguin

Tejano leader who aided in the winning of independence for Texas, became the mayer of San Antonio

federal government role in expansion

sold land at low prices
gave away land to veterans
paid for Indian removal
committed to compensate Indian people and maintained peace with Indians

Arostook War

(1838-39), bloodless conflict over the disputed boundary between the U.S. state of Maine and the British Canadian province of New Brunswick.

Ostend Manifesto

attempted seizure of Cuba from Spain
A declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.

Walker Expedition

William Walker, a southern adventurer, tried to take Baja California from Mexico in 1853; took Nicaragua to develop a proslavery empire but collapsed when he was killed by Honduran authorities

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