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Unit 3: The Royal State, Scientific Revolution

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James I (1603-1624)
-originally king of Scots (James VI), inherited Ireland
-James had bad relationship w/ Puritans, thought to be catholic
-mother was Mary, queen of Scots
-unknown, unpopular, outsider
-inherited large debt and divided church
-wrote True Law Of Free Monarch
-tried to use "divine right" to bypass parliament
-argued with parliament throughout reign
-after death, England went to war w/ Spain
Charles I (1624-1649)
-inherited war w/ Spain
-desired religious conformity
-dissolved parliament and wanted to rule independently (after they wanted him to recognize petition of right )
-made peace with France and Spain
-impose Anglican Book Of Prayer
Ship Money
-a cause of the civil war
-tax levied by Charles I w/o consent of Parliament
Petition of Right (1629)
-no loans or taxes w/o consent of Parliament
Archbishop Land
-supported Charles I's imposing of Anglican Book of Common Prayer on the Scots
John Pym (the Covenant)
-leader of Long Parliament
-critic of James I and Charles I
-organized loans and taxes so Parliament's army could have enough to bring down the king in the English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell (1649)
-radically protestant
-create parliament army
-after death of Charles, England became a Puritan republic led by the military dictator, Cromwell
-conquered Scots and Ireland
-House of Commons wanted to dissolve Parliament Army so OC dissolved Parliament
-resented by the people
Roundheads
soldiers who supported Parliament during the Civil War
Cavaliers
-name used by Parliamentarians for Royalist supporter of King Charles I during English Civil War (1642-1649)
Pride's Purge
-1648
-2nd English Civil War
-Colonel Thomas Pride's troops forcibly removed from the long Parliament all those who were not supporters of Grandees in New Model Army and the Independents
Rump Parliament
-name of parliament post Pride's Purge
The Commonwealth
political community founded for common good
The Restoration
-1660
-Englsih, Scottish, Irish monarchies all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of Three Kingdoms
Charles II
-king, parliament and Book of Prayer reinstated
-favored religious tolerance (had some catholic sympathies)
-issued declaration of Indulgence
-1670 Treaty of Dover: king of France (Louis XIV) gave Charles money, Charles had to convert to catholicism at some point
Declaration of Indulgence (Charles)
suspended laws against catholics and nonanglican protestants
Declaration of Indulgence (James II)
-suspended laws against catholics and non Anglican protestants
-permitted free worship
Clarendon Codes
-laws created by parliament to exclude catholics from religious and political participation
Test Act
-Charles II
-Parliament passed it in response to Declaration of Indulgences
-required all civil and military officials of crown to swear an oath against doctrine of transubstantiation (no R.C. could do this)
James II (1685-1688)
-catholic, so disliked by most of parliament
-after birth of son, Parliament invited William of Orange to invade
-demanded repeal to test act
-appointed Catholics to army and court
-declaration of indulgence
-royal attack on local authority
Glorious Revolution
-Parliament invited William of Orange and wife Mary (Prot. daughter of James II) to invade Englad
-little opposition, "bloodless"
William and Mary
-occupied throne together after Glorious Revolution
-recognized Bill of Rights
-Toleration Act
Bill of Rights
-recognized by W. Orange and MAry
-limited powers of monarchy and cuaranteed civil liberties of the upper classes
Toleration Act
-permitted worship by protestants only (Church of England) outlawed Catholics
Parliaments/Estates General
-legislative assembly of different classes of French subjects
Cardinal Richelieu
-French clergyman, noble and statesman
-secretary of State 1616
-Louis XIII's chief minister
-restrained power of the nobility-transformed France into a strong, centralized state
-patron of the arts
Cardinal Mazarin
-centralizing policies provoked widespread rebellion (Fronde, 1649-1652, among french nobles)
-chief minister of L13
The Fronde
-1649-1652
-rebellion among French nobles in response to centralizing policies of cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin
Louis XIV (france)
-"sun king"
-72 yrs old
-divine right of kings
absolute reign-had to work sneakily, no brute force
-ruled through council, controlled foreign, military and domestic affairs
-master of political image and propaganda (Versailles)
-respected France's social system
Versailles
-elaborate social display created by L14
-palace, largest secular structure in Europe
-impressed French people and nobility
-residence of L14, nobles and servants
-costly
Intendants
-holder of public administrative office
-royal civil servants'
-product of centralizing policies
-supervise and enforce king's will
-jurisdiction over finances policing and justice
Jean Baptiste Colbert
-french minister of finance
-bought economy back from the brink of bankruptcy
-worked to create a favorable balance of trade and increase France's colonial holdings
-key figure in Mercantalism
-150 edicts to regulate guilds
mercantilism
-the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon it's supply of capital and global volume of international trade is unchangeable
-increase exports, decrease imports
Jansenists vs. Jesuits
-jansenism is opposit of Jesuits and represents a contrast to the French royal court
-Jansenists-nothing to contribute to own salvation Jesuits, free will
-Jansenist executed
Revocation of Edict of Nantes (1685)
-extensive religious oppression followed
-conflict b/w huguenots and catholics
-L14 influenced by 2nd wige, oppressed Huguenots and repealed Edict of Nantes
-Protestants allied against king and France
-symbol of religious oppression
War of Devolution (1667)
-L14 wanted to secure his wife's right to inherit the spanish netherlands
Dutch War (1672-1678)
-France and England allied against Dutch in Treaty of Dover
-Louis invaded Netherlands (1672)
-William of Orange, HRE, Spain, Lorraine, Bradenburg allied against Louis
-war ended w/ peace of Nijmwegen
-France gained territory
War of League of Augsburg (1688-1697)
-L14 and army probed beyond borders
-League of Augsburgs (England, Spain, Sweden, United Provinces, German States) fought against France in 9 years war
-Peace of Ryswick, 1697, ended war and secured Hollands border and thwarted Louis's expansion into Germany
Charles II of Spain "El Hechizado"
-Last Habsburg King of Spain
-died w/o direct heir
-left inheritance to L14's grandson-Phillip V of Spain
-France had too much power, Grand Alliance (England, Holland and HRE ) formed in opposition -War of the Spanish Succesion
Spanish Wars of Succesion (1701- 1714)
-war over who would succeed Charles II
-France vs. everyone else
-France inadequately financed, England just the opposite (Adv. weaponry, superior tactics)
-Philip kept the throne
FW "the great Elector"
-built an army when war broke out b/w Sweden and Poland
- the Hohenzollern land holdings became a modern state through his leadership
-Paid for army through taxes through imposement of his authority (coercion)
Junkers
German nobles
Junkers/ crown relationship
German nobles were required to be loyal to Frederick
William, in return, they demanded loyalty from their serfs, the junkers dominated the military and unified Prussia (the Hohenzollerns)
East Prussia-Bradenburg-Mark/Ravensburg/Cleves
...
Frederick II a.k.a. King Frederick I
-son of the Great Elector
- not very Prussian, built Palaces
-was a patron of the arts
- invaded Silesia (an Austrian Habsburg region)
and created rivalry that would dominate central EU events for over 100 yrs
Frederick William I
-eccentric
- military from 39,000 in 1713 to
80,000 in 1740. If you were a soldier, you were in highest class. Military priorities #1 in Prussian Government
Importance of Trade
-extensive trade and finance, overseas commercial empire
-Their advanced finance system supported trade, commerce, and manufacturing
-textiles, ship building, fishing, shipping
-Dutch East India Trading Co,
tolerant religious policy
-Provinces were connected to Protestantism, but practiced religious toleration (Catholics, Jews)
Bank of Amsterdam
-financed European trade
-part of strong dutch financial system
States General
-The republic was made up of provinces; each had authority; led by the States General; the province of Holland dominated the States General; questioned the House of Orange (William) unless it involved military
Stadholder
-hereditary chief executive
-Netherlands lacked a strong one
The Diet (Sejm)
-Polish nobles had a central legislative body called the Sejm, or diet.
-included only nobles and specifically excluded representatives from corporate bodies, such as towns
Liberum Veto
-if 1 member of diet disagreed with the entire council (perhaps due to foreign influence), the council could disband
- unanimous voting was required which impeded progress
stubling block to effective government
Noble Liberty
this would result in the dissapearance of Poland from the map in the 18th century
John III Sobieski
1683
-led Poland for 22 years
-in 1683, he led a Polish army to rescue Vienna from a Turkish siege
- led to a victory at the Battle of Vienna
Bohemia-Austria-Hungary
3 countries that mostly made up the Habsburg empire
Thirty Years' War (Results)
-The Austrian Habsburgs had hopes that the war would bring Germany into their own control and that all would return to Catholicism
-decline of Spanish war meant they were on their own
-they had to look elsewhere to expand influence
Leopold I (1658-1705)
-resisted advances of the Ottoman Empire into central Europe
-achieved Ottoman recognition of his sovereignty over Hungary in 1699 and extended his territorial holdings over Balkan Peninsula and western Romania
Magyars
hungarian people
Austrian Netherlands and Lombardy
-Through the treaty of Restatt in 1714, the Habsburg further extended their domains , receiving Spanish Netherlands and and Lombardy in northern Italy
Charles VI
-he had no male heir to maintain and strengthen the Habsburg Empire
- feared that on his death the Austrian Habsburg land would come under the power of surrounding nations
devoted most of his reign to seeking approval from his family and the estates of his realms
Pragmatic Sanction
this document bacme the legal basis for a line of inheritance within the Habsburg dynasty for a line of dynasty through daughter of Charles VI - Maria Theresa
Wars Vs. Turks
The turks invaded the HB, HB struck back
- HB ended up winning and gaining land
War of Spanish Succession
..., Charles II gave the throne to Philip d'Anjou, but he was also the heir to the French throne. Also Leopold I of Austria thought that his son Archduke Charles) should get the throne because Leopold's wife was Charles II sister. They fought & ended up having Phillip give up the French throne & keeping the Spanish throne.
westernization
- the effort, especially in Peter the Great's Russia, to make society and social customs resemble counterparts in western Europe
- Peter the Great had traveled to Northwestern Europe and visited shipyards in England and Netherlands, and wanted to recreate this
The Great Embassy
- Russian diplomatic mission, sent to Western Europe in by Peter the Great.
goal of this mission was to:
- strengthen and broaden the Holy League, Russia's alliance with a number of European countries against the Ottoman Empire in its struggle for the northern coastline of the Black Sea
- hire foreign specialists for Russian service
- order and acquire military supplies and weapons.
St. Petersburg
-Peter founded the new capital city in 1703, imitating Louis the 14th
-constructed government and buildings and mini-Versailles
-symbolized the Western orientation of Russia and his intentions of holding on the Baltic
Table of Ranks
Published by Peter the Great, equated a persons social position with their rank in the military or the government making the standing of boyars dependent on service to the government
Streltsy
group of military officers that attempted to revolt against peter the great on his absence
Senate and Colleges
-Peter completely reorganized the government creating colleges or departments to oversee government affairs; those who were in charge of colleges were loyal to the tsar
-colleges were bureaus of several people operating according to written instruction rather than departments headed by a single minister
-oversaw matters such as collection of taxes, foreign relations, war, and economic affairs
Holy Synod
- peter's religious "reform" that placed tsar in control of the orthodox church
- Replacement for head of church created by Peter the Great, consisted of several bishops who governed the church according to the tsar
Old Believers
those members of the Russian Orthodox church who refused to accept the reforms of the seventeenth century regarding church texts and ritual
Great Northern War
-Russia vs. Sweden. Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies.
- Sweden won at Battle of Narva
- Russians defeated the Swedes at the Battle of Poltava in Ukraine
- Treaty of Nystad is where Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its Window on the West in the Baltic Sea
Aristotle
- assumed that above the earth lay a series of concentric spheres of moon, sun , and other planets
- in outer regions of these spheres lay gods and angels
-, Greek philosopher who proposed theories to explain many aspects of human behavior
- supported the empiricist view that all knowledge comes from sensory experiences
Nicolaus Copernicus
- A Polish astronomer who proved that the Ptolemaic system was inaccurate, he proposed the theory that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the solar system.
- the planets went around sun. On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.
Ptolemy
Mathematician/Astronomer who believed the Earth was the center of the universe
Astrology
the study of the stars and planets by those who believe they influence human events
Aristotle
-Greek philosopher and scientist.
- among the most influential of philosophers in Western history
- believed that the earth was at the center of the universe
Numerology
the study of the supposed influence of numbers on human affairs
Tycho Brahe
-Danish Astronamer who produced large amounts of astromatical data but believed that other planets rotated around the sun while the sun and moon rotated around the earth
- influenced by Copernicus
Johannes Kepler
-Brahe's assistant and continued research but supported Copernicus
- concluded that planets traveled in an elliptical motion not in concentric spheres
published his findings in New Astronomy in 1609
-integrated Copernicus' and Brahe's findings and created a solution for planetary motion
Galileo
-Italian mathematician and natural philosopher
- saw new things in the sky due to invention of telescope by the Dutch
- published starry Messenger and Letters on Sunspots which revealed new evidence in support of Copernicus
- believed that mathematical regularity existed in nature, the universe was rational
Isaac Newton
- discovered the laws of gravitation
- published The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
- inertia applied to bodies at rest and at motion
- all planes moved through mutual attraction or gravity
- demonstrated this mathematically through the analysis od empirical data
- ^ observing date before explaining it
Plato
Greek philosopher; knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world; proposed ideal form of government based on abstract principles in which philosophers ruled
Galen
Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance (circa 130-200)
Hermeticism
Belief that human beings had been created as divine creative power, but had freely chosen to enter the material world, created by Ficino who was commissioned by Cosimo de Medici
Francis Bacon
-English, lawyer, writer, historian, philosopher ; regarded as the "Father of Empiricism"
- set the stage for scientific work to develop
- published The Advancement of Learning (1605)
critical of scholasticism
- believed that there was too much emphasis on tradition
Rene Descartes
- mathematician, invented analytic geometry
- developed scientific method that focused on deductive reasoning
- published Discourse on Method in French so it would reach more people
rejected intellectual authority except himself and god
divided things that were in existence into 2 categories: mind and body , material and non material
Four Humors
- hippocrates idea that personality could be identified by either phlegm, yellow bile, black bile, or blood
-a balance of the four is wanted.
Alchemy
a medieval science aimed at the transmutation of metals, esp. base metals into gold
Paracelsus
Swiss physician who introduced treatments of particular illnesses based on his observation and experience
Robert Boyle
An English physicist and chemist, this man discovered the nature of elements and compounds and the basis of modern chemistry.
Andreas Vesalius
a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy (1514-1564)
William Harvey
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood
Royal Societies
-England and France established these for scientists to meet and discuss their discoveries
-people met at these regularly to hear papers, debated, and exchanged ideas
Margaret Cavendish
- A woman scientist who was of noble birth and wrote "Observations upon Experimental philosophy"
- only woman to be received by the Royal Societies of London
Emile Du Chatelet
- Translated Newton into French
- extensive knowledge of mathematics