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Chapter 8 Ancient Greece

1. What kinds of landforms are found in Greece?
rocky mountains, water, peninsulas, islands, rugged coastline
*Few small valleys and coastal plains provide flat land for farming and villages.
2. How did the sea help shape early Greek society?
Travel across the mountains and seas was difficult, so communities were isolated from one another. The people created their own governments and ways of life. They spoke the same language, but were separate countries.
3. What 3 seas did the Greeks depend on to find food and a way to trade?
south - Mediterranean Sea
west - Ionian Sea
east - Aegean Sea (Eejeeun)
*This is how they exchanged ideas with other countries.
4. How might the difficulty of mountain travel have been a benefit to the Greeks?
They were able to create their own governments and ways of life. They saw themselves as separate countries.
5. What was the first major civilization to develop in Greece?
They built an advanced society on the island of Crete.
*best ship builders of their time
*ships carried wood, olive oil, and pottery for trade
*a huge volcano erupted causing a giant wave and led to end of their civilization
6. How were the Minoans and Mycenaeans similar?
They were the first to start trading by sea.
Both traded in Crete.
7. What is a polis?
Greek word for a city-state
8. Why do you think the Greeks built their cities around a high acropolis?
If another country was attacking they would be safe and fight off the war from inside.
9. What are aristocrats?
rich landowners
*They ran the city's economy. They also served as generals and judges.
10. How were oligarchy and tyranny different?
Oligarchy is a government which a few people have power. Tyranny is 1 leader who help power through the use of force.
11. Describe the democracy created by the Cleisthenes.
All citizens in Athens had the right to participate in creating the city's laws. Voting was done by a show of hands. Major decisions needed about 6,000 votes. Later they selected citizens to decide which laws they should discuss.
12. How did Pericles change Athenian democracy?
He believed people participating in government was very important. He paid people who served. He also encouraged to introduce democracy to other parts of Greece.
13. What type of democracy did Athens have?
They were conquered by Macedonia. The king ruled his country. Nobody could make any decisions without his approval. The people still met to discuss laws, but the King had to approve it. After a new king, the democracy ended forever.
14. In what situations would a representative democracy work better than a direct democracy?
Representative democracy works better for larger countries because their are too many people to gather together (like U.S.). We elect people to represent us and make decisions on laws.
15. What is a mythology?
a body of stories about gods and heroes that try to explain how the world works
16. Why did the ancient Greeks create myths?
The ancient Greeks didn't have explanations for thunder, earthquakes, and volcanoes like we do today. They believed their gods caused these events to happen and they created myths to explain the gods' actions.
17. What are Homer's most famous works?
Iliad (tells the story of the last years of the Trojan War)
18. How are fables different from myths?
*myths explain why things happen
*fables are stories that teach lessons
19. In what areas have Greek myths influenced our culture?
*We have the Olympics every 4 years. The ancient Greeks honored their Gods by holding contest at Olympia (a city in southern Greece).
*Homer's poems influenced later writers.
*Words of songs are called lyrics after Greek poets.
20. How did the geography affect the development of the Greek city-states?
The city-states were spread along the Mediterranean Sean and the Black Sea. These locations made it easy to trade with others.
21. How did the concept of the polis affect the growth of the Greek colonies?
It marked the beginning of the "classical age." It had great achievements.
22. What roles did Draco, Solon, and Peisistratus play in the history of Greek government?
*Draco - created a new set of laws for the Athens (very harsh - too strict)
*Solon - created laws that were much less harsh (all free men living in Athens became citizens)
*Peisistratus - He became the ruler (he help the power through use of force...armies)
23. What means rule by a single person?
24. What means the study of life?
25. Is something that is microscopic very small or very large?
very small
26. What type of ancient Greek literature would most likely describe the deeds of a great hero?
27. What was the main cause for the independence of city-states in ancient Greece?
the Greeks' location on the sea
*They became colonies instead of city-states
28. Athens was ruled by a single person under the type of government known as?
29. The citizens' assembly in ancient Athens was an example of?
Direct Democracy (all citizens were part of government decisions)
30. Being surrounded by water makes the Greeks better?
31. What were the 2 early Greek civilizations?
Which one wasn't actually Greek and which one was? Why?
Minoans - didn't speak the Greek language
Mycenaeans- were first to speak Greek and first to be considered Greek people.
32. Which type of government is done by a small group of aristocrats?
33. Which type of government was led by Peisistratus?
Tyrant - he took over the oligarchy government
34. Who started the 1st democracy? Why?
He started it because he didn't like the aristocrats running the government
35. Who is Pericles and how did he affect democracy?
He encouraged the Athenians to take pride in their city. He believed that participating in government was just as defending Athens in war. He paid those who served in government and spread the word.
36. What city-state first used democracy?
37. Who brought an end to democracy in Athens?
Macedonians - their King had all power
38. Who are 5 major Greek gods?
Hephaestus - god of metalworking (designed armor)
Demeter - goddess of agriculture
Zeus - king of the gods
Poseidon - god of the sea
Apollo - god of the sun
39. What is the story of Demeter?
She created the seasons -
*She missed her daughter in winter and didn't let plants grow
*When her daughter comes home, it's summer...plants grow
40. What is the story of Theseus?
He traveled to Crete and killed a terrible monster that was half human and half bull.
41. What was the story of Jason?
He sailed across the seas in search of treasure and fought enemies the whole way.
42. What was the story of Hercules?
*Most famous story
He fought many monsters and performed nearly impossible tasks (like killing a snake with 9 heads)
43. What are 3 major types of Greek literature? And who was the famous writer for each?
1. Epic - Homer
2. Lyric - Sappho
3. Fables - Aesop
44. What are some major Greek influences we see today?
Olympics, English words (odyssey and titanic), Atlas Mountains, Europe, Titans team, Jupiter's moon (Io), Hercules