712 terms

AP Human Geography Terms (Rubenstein + REA)


Terms in this set (...)

The science of making maps; process of mapmaking
contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
cultural ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships. - study of a human group's interaction with its natual environment
the body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradition
the frequency in which something exists in a given unit of area
the process of spread of a feature of trend from one place to another over time.
distance decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
the arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
environmental determinism
A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.; school of thought that believes human activities are controlled by their environment
0 degrees latitude, the imaginary horizontal line around the Earth equidistant from the north and south poles
expansion diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process. - subtype of diffusion in which a phenomenon spreads outward from its hearth while remaining stong in the original location through hierarchical, contagious, or stimulus patterns
formal region (or uniform/homogeneous region)
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
friction of distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places (increased distance=decreased interaction/similarities) - negative impact that distance has on spatial interaction, including communication and travel
functional region (nodal region)
An area organized around a node or focal point
GIS (geographic information system)
a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
GPS (global positioning system)
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
hierarchical diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
The region from which innovative ideas originate
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross it heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0 degrees)
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn of a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0 degrees)
Mercator projection
map accurate mostly in direction, shape, and near the equator, but highly distorted near the poles - rectangular
-accurately shows shape of land, but distorts size
The theory that the physical may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives. - school of thought suggesting that humans' natural environments present a set of choices from which humans choose their actions
Prime Meridian
The meridian, designated as 0 degrees longitude, that passes through the Royal observatory at Greenwich, England
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map
relocation diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another. - subtype of diffusion in which the phenomenon spreads through the movement of its users from one place to another
remote sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods. - technique of obtaining info about objects through the study of data collected by special instruments that are not in physical contact with the objects being analyzed
Robinson projection
disadvantages are land areas are small due to including space on the map for oceans - map showing the world with slight distortions to all four properties, rather than having one property correct and the other three drastically distorted
the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
the physical character of a place - internal physical and cultural characteristics of a place, such as its terrain and dominant religions, among others
the location of a place relative to another place - location (or context) of a place relative to the physical and cultural characteristics around it. The more interconnected a place is to other powerful places, the better its situation
space-time compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems- increasing sense of accessibility and connectivity that seems to be bringing humans in distant places closer together - seen as the increasing links among people of the earth so that real distance remains the same by perceived distance decreases
spatial analysis
Examining geographic patterns to identify relationships; Thinking necessary to answer questions like: Why is what where? What are the patterns
stimulus expansion diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected. - occurs when an innovative idea diffuses from its hearth outward, but the original idea is changed by the new adopters
time zones
24 vertical divisions of the globe, each of 15 degrees longitude, with different times, all an hour off of its neighbors
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface. - name given to a place
uneven development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy. - urban development that is not spread equally among a city's areas, leaving some areas richly developed and others continually poor and decrepitt
vernacular region (perceptual region)
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
population pyramid (age distribution)
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
agricultural density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture - number of farmers per area of farmland
arithmetic density
The total number of people divided by the total land area- number of people per area
Cairo Conference
the international conference with a huge attendance that came together to discuss the health, wealth, and empowerment of women
carrying capacity
the number of individuals in a given area that it is capable of maintaining and sustaining- looks at all measurements (resources, income, etc.) - maximum number of people a region can reasonable sustain
A complete enumeration of a population.
child mortality rate
Number of deaths per thousand children within the first five years of life.
deliberate birth control and/or abortion
people who have optimistic views on population growth due to faith in advancing science and technology; possibilists
crude death rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
crude birth rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
demographic equation
The formula that calculates population change.
The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.
Demographic Transition model
the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.- the model that displays this

stage 1 (low growth): high and flexible cbr and cdr, low nir
2 (high growth): dramatically increasing nir, cdr decreases, cbr stays level
3 (decreasing growth) : nir,cbr, and cdr all decrease at an equal rate
4 (low growth): nir and cbr continue to decrease, cdr increases slightly
The scientific study of population characteristics, transitions, and projections
dependency ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force. - measurement in which the number of people unable to work because of age is compared with the number of workers in a society
doubling time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. - number of years it will take for a population to double in size
a process of improvement in material conditions of people through diffusion and knowledge of technology -Process of improving the material condition of people through the growth and diffusion of technology and knowledge.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. - portion of earth's surface that is habitable for humans
epidemiological development
stages of the distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
1.pestilence and famine-natural deaths (famine)
2.receding pandemics- wide spread disease (sanitation, nutrition, etc. )
3.degeneration and human-created diseases (polio)
4.delayed degenerative diseases (cancer)
5.infectious and parasitic diseases (AIDS) currently in
causes for 5:evolution, poverty, improved travel
Gender Empowerment (GEM)
compares the ability of women and me to participate in economic and political decision making (economic, political)
GDI (Gender-Related Development Index)
compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes (social, cultural)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year.
Gross National Income (GNI)
The total value of goods and services produced by a country in and out of its own borders during a specific time period, normally a year.
Human Development Index (HDI)
an indicator of the level of development for each country , constructed by the United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
-1 econ- GNI per capita
-2 knowledge- mean yrs of schooling, expected amount of education for children
-1 health- life expectancy
infant mortality rate (IMR)
the total number of deaths in a year among infants 1 year old for every 1000 live births in a society
This is when the projection population show exponential growth; sometimes shape as a j-curve. This is important because if the population grows exponential our resource use will go up exponential and so will our use as well as a greater demand for food and more.
LDC (less developed country)
A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development
MDC (more developed country)
A country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
life expectancy (longevity rate)
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Thomas Malthus
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production. - his "An Essay on the Principles of Population" was an alarming report during the British Industrial Revolution that predicted that food production would be outpaced by population growth rates. He warned of negative checks, such as famine, and called for positive checks, such as birth control
supports and encourages families to have babies
discourages women and families to have more babies
Those who believe that population growth will eventually outpace available resources and lead to a global catastrophe- follow Malthus' beliefs
natural increase rate (NIR) (RNI)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Occurs when a region exceeds its carrying capacity. This is difficult to measure because of changing technology and environmental issues that continually alter the carrying capacity.
physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
population aggomeration
a city or urban area with suburbs linked to the continuous area
(an urban cluster)
replacement fertility
The total fertility rate at which women would have only enough children to replace themselves and their partner.(2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)
Leveling off of an exponential, J-shaped curve when a rapidly growing population exceeds the carrying capacity of its environment and ceases to grow.
sex ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
zero population growth
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero. - occurs when births equal deaths, leading to a stationary population level
brain drain
Large-scale emigration by talented people. - net out-migration of the most educated individuals from a region
brain gain
the potential of return migrants to contribute to the social and economic development of their home country (or a foreign country) with the experiences they have gained abroad
chain migration (migration ladder)
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
the disperse of jewish people due to force; The movement, migration, or scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland - scattering of any ethnic group; originally referred to the Jews
distance decay function
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Migration from a location - movement out of a country or region
Migration to a new location- movement into a country or region
forced migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors. - occurs when a migrant is forced to move because of abuse, war, or similar negative circumstances against their will
voluntary migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice. - move made by a migrant because he or she wants to move
gravity model (Reilly's Law of Migration)
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
guest worker
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs. - migrant who is temporarily permitted to stay in a country only to work
internal migration
Permanent movement within a particular country.
international migration
Permanent movement from one country to another.
intervening obstacle
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration. - Barrier encountered on a journey that prevents or interferes with getting to the planned, final destination.
intervening opportunity
migrants may find a place more appealing before reaching intended destination
migration transition
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
migration stream
A constant flow of migrants from the same origin to the same destination.
migration selectivity
Only people exhibiting certain characteristics, like age, gender, and education, in a population choosing to migrate.- combination of factors that predict a person't likelihood to migrate based on factors like age, gender, and education
All types of movement from one location to another (including short and long distances)
net migration
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
periodic movement
A type of movement that involves longer periods away from home (ex. a college student that only comes home in the summer, migrant labor. or military service)
push factors
Factors that induce people to leave old residences. - factor that causes a migrant to move out of a region, such as high taxes or poor schools
pull factors
Factors that induce people to move to a new location. - factor that attracts a migrant to a region, such as good schools or nice weather
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
Ravenstein's Laws
A set of 11 "laws" that can be organized into three groups: the reasons why migrants move, the distance they typically move, and their characteristics.
Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poor countries
step migration
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city - long migration that occurs as a journey of smaller steps from one place to another until the destination is reached
time-contract workers
Workers recruited for a fixed period to work in menial or unskilled positions, causing them to temporarily immigrate there
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.- form of pastoral nomadism in which people herd their animals from higher altitudes, such as mountains, to lower places, such as pastures -Movement of animal herds to cooler highland areas in the summer to warmer lowlands areas in the winter.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements. -the growth and diffusion of city landscapes and urban lifestyles - diffuses by expansion diffusion and snowballing process - growth and diffusion of city landscapes and urban lifestyle
Movement of upper and middle class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as the deteriorating social conditions.
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries - increase in rural populations resulting from the out-migration of city residents from their city and suburban homes in search of the peace and tranquility of nonurban lifestyles
process by which a culture modifies their culture by adopting the beliefs and traditions of another - occurs when a less-dominant culture comes into contact with and adopts traits from a more dominant culture
process where one culture represents another - final completion of the cultural acculturation process, when a culture loses all its original traits and becomes fully a part of a different, dominating culture
An object made by human beings; often refers to a primitive tool or other relic from an earlier period.
built environment (or cultural landscape)
The man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter to neighborhoods to the large-scale civic surroundings - tangible result of a human group's interaction with its environment
core-domain-sphere model
The place where concentration of culture traits that characterizes a region is greatest. (a model showing this)
cultural convergence
cultures merging together and gaining similarity of traits - occurs when one culture adopts a cultural attribute of another
cultural landscape
A combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation.
culture (or geographic) realm
A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail. (abstract location)- cluster of culture regions in which common culture systems are found. Examples include Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa
culture hearth
A center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward - area where innovations in culture began and from which such cultural elements spread
culture region
An area in which people have many shared culture traits (specific location)
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups. - isolated group that has had long-lasting culture traits that have not changed substantially over time
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope. -The spread of economic activities from a home country to other parts of the world, but its reach has profoundly influenced cultural and political realms.
a repetitive act that a particular individual performs
material culture
The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people.
-visible artifacts that a group possesses and leaves behind for the future
-pieces of a cultural landscape that are tangible, such as clothing and architecture
non-material culture
Human creations, such as values, norms, knowledge, systems of government, language, and so on, that are not embodied in physical objects
popular culture
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics. - mass culture that diffuses rapidly
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.
The contribution of a location's distinctive physical features to the way food tastes
sequent occupance
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape - theory that a place is occupied by different groups of people, each group leaving an imprint on the place from which the next group learns
uniform landscape
The spatial expression of a popular custom in one location being similar to another.
the manner in which people speak and the way words are pronounced in different parts of the world
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
a made-up Latin-based language, which its European proponents in the early twentieth century hoped would become a global language
extinct language
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family
language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
language group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
language family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
lingua franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages - language used to facilitate trade among groups speaking different languages
literary tradition
A language that is written as well as spoken
Speaking only one language.
Speaking two languages.
Speaking several languages
official language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents. -Language selected by a country to represent its identity in courts and government proceedings.
The art or study of correct spelling according to established usage. + the study of where languages are found and located
pidgin (language)
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
standard use
the form of language used for official government
trade language
A language used between native speakers of different languages to allow them to communicate so that they can trade with each other.
the everyday speech and slang of the people
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life. - belief that objects such as trees, mountains, and rivers have divine spirits in them
branch (religious)
A large and fundamental division within a religion
A division of a religious branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church
ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination,or sect).
During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure. - ethnic neighborhood created by government, social, or economic pressures, causing people of one ethnicity to live together
hierarchical religion
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
the doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
belief in or worship of more than one god
A system of beliefs shared by a group with objects for devotion, rituals for worship and a code of ethics - set of beliefs and activities created to help humans celebrate and understand their place in the world
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination - small group that breaks away from a denomination within a religion's branch
A doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations - movement away from control of life by a religion
an animistic religion of northern Asia having the belief that the mediation between the visible and the spirit worlds is effected by shamans - any ethnic religion in which a community follows its shaman, or religions leader, healer, and truth knower
traditional religion
from folk cultures; passed down for many generations
tribal religion
folk religion existing only for members of the tribe
universalizing religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location. - type of religion that its truth is the one and only truth and is applicable to all humans, a belief often leading to proselytizing and missionary work
A policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine.
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas. - South Africa's English-Dutch imposed government segregating white and black inhabitants
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood. - now illegal tactic that contributed to ghettoization; used by real estate agent to get people to move out of their homes because to feat of racial integration
centripetal force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state- force that unifies a state's people and regions
centrifugal force
An attitude that tends to divide people and lower state support - force that divides a state's people and regions
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions. - complex identity created by a people to define their group through actual or perceived shared culture traits, such as language, religion, and so forth
ethnic cleansing
process by which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.- process in which a racial or ethnic group attempts to expel or exterminate from a territory another racial or ethnic group
multiethnic state
state that contains more than one ethnicity
multinational state
state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities - state with more than one nation within its borders
loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality - state containing one nation, a cohesive group of people linked to their territory through a shared government and common goals
identity with a group of people descended form a common ancestor- classification system of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics
belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular rave
concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves - power of a nation to control its own territory and destiny
balance of power
condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries
Berlin Conference
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa and banned the slave trade
invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland. - political space comprising a central city and surrounding farmland
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory. - control by a developed state over an underdeveloped area
A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
compact state
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly. - efficient - state with little variation in distance from its center point to any point on its boundary
the descent through successive stages of progress, time, or politics- gets worse - process of transferring some power from the central government to regional governments
elongated state
a state with a long, narrow shape - potential isolation - state with a long, thin shape
Exclusive Economic Zone; sea zone property rights to use as wish for money; created by the UN
fragmented state
a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory - problematic- separated by water of other states - state geographically existing in more than one piece, or in fragments
a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control - region where boundaries are very thinly or weakly developed; zone where territoriality is not well established and is unclear
process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power - redrawing electoral boundaries to give one political party an advantage over others
federal state
an internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. - the process of establishing political, social, and economic dominance over a colonized area
the proposition that ones state should annex another's territory based on the common ethnicity of its people - movement to reunite a nation's homeland when part of it extends into another state's borders
landlocked state
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea. - state without coastal access to a body of water
A state that encompasses a very small land area
perforated state
a state that completely surrounds another state- trade advantage- South Africa, not Lesotho - state with a hold punched in it by another state
prorupted state
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension- for access or disruption
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states. - internationally recognized control of a state over the people and territory within its boundaries
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs - political unit with a permanent population, territorial boundaries recognized by other states, an effective government, a working economy, and sovereignty
stateless nation
Nation that does not have a specific state. - nation without a territory to call its own
territorial waters
the waters near states' shores generally treated as part of national territory
unitary state
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
A venture involving three or more national states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. (ex. The European Union) - growing trend of three or more countries forming an alliance for cultural, economic, or military reasons
United Nations
A league of most of the nations of the world that help to regulate world problems and decide upon the outcome of states - goal is to keep peace and use political cooperation
agglomeration economies
Economy in which like things are put together to their benefit all businesses and contribute to the production of a similar product.
basic industry
Industry that sells its products outside the community, bringing money into the community.
non-basic industry
Industries that sell their goods and services primarily to consumers in the community
Brandt Line
division of the world between MDCs and LDCs (MDCs in north have relatively high HDIs while southern countries have lower indexes)
comparative advantage
The ability of a producer to produce a good at a lower cost than another producer can - Ability of a country to produce a good or offer a service better than another country can.
dependency theory
A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop - according to this theory, former colonies in South America, Africa, and Asia have not been able to heal from imperial domination and are still dependent on their former European colonies -Theory that exemplifies the structuralist perspective, arguing that the political and economic relations among countries limit the ability of less-developed countries to modernize and develop.
developing country
a country in which the society is less modern and less industrialized and in which inhabitants are generally poorer than they are in developed countries
economic indicators
Economic information used to measure the economy; includes gross domestic product, consumer price index, inflation rate, and unemployment rate.
economic development
Improvement of human living standards by economic growth.
import substitution
a government policy that uses trade restrictions and subsidies to encourage domestic production of manufactured goods
literacy rate
The percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
The tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market; a reflection of large and variable distribution costs. +idea of market economies and free enterprise
control by a powerful country of its former colonies (or other less developed countries) by economic pressures
primary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
quaternary sector
Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services.
raw material orientation
The location of the manufacturing plant in relation to the source of raw materials to lower transportation costs
regional multiplier
the total number of jobs created in the basic and nonbasic sectors for each new basic job in a region
Rowstow's "Modernization Model"
process and system of how counties develop
1. Traditional Society
2. Preconditions Take Off
3. Take Off
4. Drive to Maturity
5. High Mass Consumption
secondary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
subsistence economy
a type of economy in which human groups live off the land with little or no surplus to sustain themselves only
sustainable development
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (environmentally) -Balance between the pace of human development and the environment that supports that development.
tertiary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
trickle-down effects
An economic theory which states that investing money in companies and giving them tax breaks is the best way to stimulate the economy.
value added
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations. -System of food production involving everything from the development of seeds to the marketing and sale of food products at the market.
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earths's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain. -Growing plants or raising animals to produce food for sustenance or sale at the marketplace.
Raising aquatic organisms for food in a controlled environment (ponds, underwater cages, etc.)
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes. -Using living organisms to produce or change plant or animal products.
Carl Sauer
Theory of Vegetative Hearth; Agriculture probably didn't originate from one hearth, but multiple hearths, and from these, agricultural practices diffused worldwide; prominent geographer in the 20th century who championed the study of cultural landscape and built environment in human geography
cereal grain
A grass yielding grain for food
commodity chain
series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is on world market
crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. -Loss of inhabitable land to the expansion of deserts.
Selective growing or breeding of plants and animals to make them more useful to humans.
double cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field. -Planting and harvesting a crop on a field more than once a year.
extensive subsistence agriculture
consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre -Using a large amount of land to farm food for the farmer's family to eat.
Land left unseeded during a growing season; inactive; plowed but left unseeded during a growing season : farmland
a plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market
von Thunen's model
Model which shows the location of agriculture in regard to a comercial economy that is similar to the concentric model
GMO (genetically modified organism)
An organism that has undergone genetic engineering for human advantage
green revolution
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers. - As an outgrowth of the third agricultural revolution, this effort began in the 1940s and developed new strains of hybrid seeds and fertilizers that dramatically increased the crop output possible from each farm.
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
the clearing of rows in the field through the use of hoes, rakes, & other manual equipment - in shifting cultivation, allows increased productivity by allowing multiple crops to be planted on the same field -Practice of mixing many types of seeds on the same plot of land.
intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land. -Cultivating a small amount of land very efficiently to produce food for the farmer's family.
luxury crops
Non-subsistence and nonessential crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied due to it being perishable. -Zone around the city's center in which milk can be produced and shipped to the marketplace without spoiling.
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area -Raising animals on a plot of land on which they feed or graze.
the system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
rural settlement
Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism (ecotourism).
pastoral nomadism
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
prime agricultural land
The most productive farmland.
A flooded field for growing rice- often miscalled as a paddy
shifting cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period. -Form of extensive subsistence agriculture in which farmers rotate the fields they cultivate to allow soil to replenish its nutrients.
slash and burn agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris. -Common way that subsistence farmers prepare a new plot of land for farming: a system in which land is cleared by cutting the existing plants on the land and then burning the rest to create a cleared plot of new farmland.
subsistence agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
A government payment that supports a business or market and protects them, like for farming
survey patterns
Method of separating land, usually devised by the government of the land
sustainable agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
tragedy of the commons
situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community
truck farming
commercial gardening and fruit farming, so name because truck was Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange or commodities
vertical integration
Practice where a single item controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
winter wheat
Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer.
spring wheat
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
assembly line
Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks
break-of-bulk point
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
abandoned industrial sites.;, Real property of which the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.
bulk-gaining industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs. - need to be closer to market to minimize transportation costs
bulk-reducing industry
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs. - needs to be closer to resources to minimize transportation costs
finished products from production uses resources
cottage industry
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
Loss of industrial activity in a region.
export processing industry
Industrial areas specially set up by governments to attract foreign investment and to create employment. Incentives to companies choosing to operate within such zones include duty free imports of raw materials, flexibility of labor laws and tax concessions. (Mexico, aka Maquilas)
footloose industry
industry that produces a very lightweight product of high importance, so location is not an issue and very flexible
form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly
Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks; moving away from mass production
industrial inertia
A situation where a firm remains in its original location even after the initial advantage that led to them locating there has disappeared.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. (3 of them) - Began in England around the 1700s and later diffused in an eastward direction throughout Europe and to the US. Saw the development of factory-based economies and urban migration at a large scale Coincided with the second agricultural revolution and high population growth rates - Social and economic change that began in England in the 1760's that was when machines replaced human labor and new sources inanimate energy were tapped.
the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. - "backbone" of a society, including communication, transportation, and other such maintenance structures
economies of scale
as a company produces larger numbers of a particular product, the cost of each of these products goes down
An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
least-cost theory
Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the optimal location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration.
manufacturing region
a region which manufacturing activities have clustered together
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
mass production
Process of making large quantities of an identical product quickly and cheaply
A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers. -An MNC relocating a piece of its manufacturing operations to factories in other countries.
raw materials
Unprocessed natural products used in production
site factors
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
situation factors
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
Varignon frame
A system of "weights and pulleys" used to help determine the optimum location of a production facility.
Alfred Weber
Twentieth-century German geographer who created the least cost theory to predict the location decisions made by industrial operations.
CBD (central business district)
downtown; The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
census tract
An area deliniated by the US Bureau of the Census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, they correspond roughly to neighborhoods
central place theory
How the most profitable location for a business can be identified; A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther. - studying the geographical patterns of urban land use - developed in the 1930s by Walter Christaller, this model explains and predicts patterns of urban places across the map. In his model, Christaller analyzed the hexagonal, hierarchical pattern of cities, villages, towns, and hamlets arranged according to their existing in urban places and the hinterlands they serve.
concentric zone model (Burgress)
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
consumer services
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and education, health, and leisure services
a continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities
combined statistical area (CSA)
In the U.S., 2 or more contiguous core based statistical areas tied together by commuting patterns.
density gradient
The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
edge city
A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area. - self-sufficient urban area within a greater metropolitan complex; often develops on highway exits
filtering (filter process)
A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
galatic city
a mini edge city that is connected to another city by beltways or highways
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income, renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class, owner-occupied area - process in which older urban zones are rediscovered and renovated by people who mace back into the inner city from their suburban fringes; resulting influx of new money raises prices and pushes out lower-income residents
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
a remote and undeveloped area - area serviced by a central place
Latin American city model
Griffin-Ford model. Developed by Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford. Blends traditional Latin American culture with the forces of globalization. The CBD is dominant; it is divided into a market sector and a modern high-rise sector. The elite residential sector is on the extension of the CBD in the "spine". The end of the spine of elite residency is the "mall" with high-priced residencies
Market area
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns) - massive, urban "blob" of overlapping, integrating metropolitan areas whose distinctive boundaries are increasingly becoming difficult to find
MSA (et al)
Micropolitan Statistical Area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the country in which it is found, and the adjacent countries tied to the city - US census bureau geographic unit of area comprising a central city and the surrounding countries integrated into it, and having a population of 10,000 to 50,000
multiple nuclei model (Harris and Ullman)
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
peripheral model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
primate city rule
the country's largest settlement has twice as many people as the second ranking settlement, etc.;this rule or the rank size rule; the absence of this in LDCs indicates that there is not enough wealth in the society to pay full variety of services
primary census statistical area (PCSA)
In the United States, all of the combined statistical areas plus all of the remaining metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas.
public housing project
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to residents with low incomes, and the rest are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes
rank-size rule
in developed countries; the 2nd largest city is 1/2 the size of the 1st largest city, the 4th largest city is 1/4 the size of the largest city, etc.; this or the primate city rule - in a region, the nth largest city's population in 1/n the population of the region's largest city
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to a service
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries. - now illegal practice of bands and lending agencies refusing to give loans to people moving to minority-dominated districts because the banks/agencies feared the loans would not be repaid based on the statistical improbability of successful development in the districts
scattered site
site in which dwellings/shelters are dispersed throughout the city rather than clustered in a large area
squatter settlement
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
sector model (Hoyt)
attempt to explain city structure by dividing the city into zones based on certain goals that continue past the CBD as the city grows
Activities that are consumed at the same time they are produced
smart growth
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
social area analysis
Statistical analysis from census used to identify where people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and life style live within an urban area.
A residential district located on the outskirts of a city
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
the minimum number of people/customers needed to support the service in order to make a profit - minimum number of people needed to fuel a particular function's existence in a central place
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
urban realms model
a simplified description of urban land use; proposes that each or edge city is a separate economic, social, and political entity that is linked together to form the larger metropolitan framework. The CBD is losing dominance; Includes a CBD, central city, new downtown, and suburban downtown.
urban renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
zone in transition
An area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD. - ring of land usually just around the CBD that is constantly in flux and run down because of successive waves of immigration that never allow it to develop a permanent population base and attract development
zoning ordinance
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
world's systems theory (Wallerstein)
The economic world is explained through the emergence of a core, periphery, and semi-periphery system.

core= industrialized, developed countries that drive the global economy

semi-periphery= countries that are between the core and the periphery

periphery= countries that are underdeveloped, and, were, usually, once colonies
migration model (Lee)
both the origin and destination of migrants have their push and pull factors, and in between is the intervening obstacles and objectives
absolute location
position of an object on the global grid; latitude and longitude
focused on the English culture
azimuthal projection
map that maintains direction but distorts other properties; flat-plane-constructed map of each hemisphere; direction is accurate, and great-circle routes are apparent
cardinal directions
north, south, east, and west
map that uses proportionality (ex. space on the map) to show a particular variable
chloropleth thematic map
map that shows a pattern of a variable, such as population density or voting patterns, by using various colors of degrees of shading
cognitive (mental) map
map drawn from memory
conformal (orthomorphic) projection
map that maintains shape but distorts other properties
data aggregation
size of geographic units being represented on a map
necessary error resulting from trying to represent the round, nearly spherical earth on a flat plane, or map
dot density map
thematic map that uses dots to represent the frequency of a variable in a given area
equal-area (equivalent) projection
map that maintains distance but distorts other properties
formal region
region composed of areas that have a common (or uniform) cultural or physical feature; sometimes referred to as uniform regions
four main properties of a map
shape, size (area), distance, and direction.
geometric shapes of the objects on the map
size (area)
relative amount of space taken up on the map by the landforms or objects on the map
represented distance between objects on the map
degree of accuracy representing the cardinal and intermediate directions
functional region
group of place linked together by some function;s influence on them after diffusing from a central node; sometimes referred to as the nodal model
geographic information system (GIS)
computer program that stores geographic data and produces maps to show that data
geographic model
simplified version of what exists on the earth or what might exist in the future; helps a geographer search for answers to why patterns exist on the earth as they do
global positioning system (GPS)
system of satellites used to determine an exact location on the global grid
great circles
circles formed on the surface of the earth by a plane that passes through the center of the earth. The equator and every line of longitude paired with its twin on the opposite side of the earth form great circles. Any arc of a great circle shows the shortest distance between two points on the earth's surface
Greenwich mean time (GMT)
baseline for time zones around the world, centered on the prime meridian; sometimes called Universal time
human environment interaction
one theme of geography through which geographers analyze humans' impact on their environment and their environment's impact on them
human geography
branch of geography primarily concerned with analyzing the structures, processes, and location of human creations and interactions with the earth
intermediate directions
northwest, southwest, northeast, southeast
isoline thematic map
map displaying lines that connect points of equal value; for example, a map showing elevation levels
lines of latitude
measured in degrees north and south from the equator, which is 0 degrees latitude. The North Pole is 90 degrees north latitude, and the South Pole is 90 degrees south latitude. These never intersect, so geographers often call them parallels.
lines of longitude
measured in degrees east and west of one line of longitude, known as the prime meridian, the line of longitude that runs through England's Greenwich Observatory. The prime meridian represents 0 degrees longitude.
2-d model of the earth or a portion of its surface
map (or cartographic) scale
relationship between distance on the map and the actual measurement in the real world
theme in geography involving the movement occurring in a space: movement of information, people, goods, and other phenomena
place from which a diffusing phenomenon spreads to other places (its originating point)
vernacular (or perceptual) region
An area defined by subjective perceptions that reflect the feelings and images about key place characteristics. When these perceptions come from the local, ordinary folk, can be called a perceptual region - are with boundaries defined by people's beliefs, emotions, and attitudes
Gall-Peters projection
Map created by a geographer to show the relative sizes of the earth's continents accurately (equal area). However, it distorts shape, so it is not conformal.
physical geography
branch of geography concerned with spatial analysis of the structures, processes, and locations of the earth's natural phenomena, like soil, climate, plants, and topography
theme in geography that involves the unique combination of physical and cultural attributes that give each location on the earth its individual "stamp"
primary data
Data directly collected by the geographer making the map or conducting the study.
proportional-symbol thematic map
Map that uses some symbol to display the frequency of a variable. The larger the symbol on the map, the higher the frequency of the variable found in that region
reference map
map showing common features like boundaries, roads, highways, mountains, and cities
theme in geography involving a spatial unit tat has many places sharing similar characteristics
relative directions
Directions commonly given by people, such as right, left, up, and down, among many others.
relative location
location of a place or object described in relation to places or objects around it
secondary data
data used by a geographer but collected by another source that previously conducted a study and made the data available for future use
sense of place
Person's perception of the human and physical attributes of a location that give it a unique identity in that person's mind
Cartographer's process of eliminating unnecessary details and focusing on the information that needs to be displayed in the map
spatial interaction
Process in which goods, ideas, information, and people move among places- exchange of ideas, people, money, and products among various places
spatial perspective
Outlook through which geographers identify, explain, and predict the human and physical patterns in space and the interconnectedness of different spaces
thematic map
a map that zeroes in on one feature such as climate, population, or voting patterns
activity space
The area in which you travel on a daily basis.
antinatalist population policy
restrictive policy that discourages people from having babies
arable land
Land that can be used for agriculture.
chain migration
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
group of people usually classified by age
CBR (crude birth rate)
number of live births per 1000 people over a year
CDR (crude death rate)
total number of deaths per every 1000 people over a year
cyclic movement
Movement made on a daily basis that involves a very short move to and from one's home
demographic accounting equation
equation used for evaluating population change on global and subglobal levels. At the global level, the CBR and CDR are the only two factors in the equation of change. At the subglobal level, immigration and emigration are taken into account
demographic momentum (hidden momentum)
phenomenon of a growing population size even after replacement-level fertility has been reached. This occurs when the base of the population pyramid is so wide that the generation of parents will take time to cycle out before zero growth occurs.
removal of salt from saltwater to make potable drinking water
Center, or most intensely affected region, of an outbreak or disaster.
disease spread acutely over a localized area
(Ernst) Ravenstein
Nineteenth-centry geographer who wrote essays outlining 11 generalizations of migration, some of which still apply today, whereas others have changed since he wrote them during the Industrial Revolution in England.
Ester Boserup
Principal critic of Malthusian theory who argued that overpopulation could be solved by increasing the number of subsistence farmers. - Geographer who developed the theory that subsistence farmers want the most leisure time they can have, so they farm in ways that will allow them both to feed their families and to maximize free time.
Eugenic population policy
policy that encourages some groups of people to have babies and discriminates against other groups, discouraging their reproduction
ability to conceive a child
exponential growth
growth that is compounded, like interest in a bank account; contrasts with linear (arithmetic, or regular) growth, which does not increase in rate
female infanticide
In response to restrictive population policies, families kill their female infants so they can try to have male babies
reproductive behavior in a population leading to births
first agricultural revolution (Neolithic Revolution)
Occurred 10,000 to 12,000 years ago when humans first developed the ability to remain in a settlement and domesticate crops and animals. Led to the development of cities. - Period marked by the development of seed agriculture and the use of animals in the farming process just 12,000 years ago
GFR (general fertility rate)
number of births per 1000 women in the fecund range over a year
graying population
Evidenced by a population pyramid showing a higher number of older, or elderly, people in its projection than younger, working-age people. The pyramid is top-heavy.
human immunodeficiency virus is the onset of what turns into the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A global pandemic, outbreaks are most acute in Africa and Asia
IMR (infant mortality rate)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
internally displaced person
another name for an intranational refugee, someone who is forced from home but remains within the country
international refugees
refugees who flee their country and move to another country
interregional migration
Internal migration among particular regions in a country
intranational refugees
refugees who abandon their homes but remain in their country to escape persecution
intraregional migration
Internal migration within a particular region, such as from suburbs to an inner city.
Karl Marx
principal critic of Malthusian theory who argued that overpopulation was the fault of unchecked capitalism and unequal distribution of resources, leaving some places unable to care for their populations
life expectancy
Average number of years a person is expected to live.
linear (or arithmetic) growth
growth that is regular and not compounded over time. the growth remains at a steady pace, rather than increasing in a pace over time (exponential).
medical revolution
period in stage 2 of the demographic transition model when lifesaving medical technology drastically reduces the CDR, leading to longer life expectancies and higher NIRs
movement of a person across an administrative border. The move is intended to be permanent.
migration streams
migrants move from a place of origin to a destination
migration counterstreams
when the original flow of migrants produces an opposite flow of returning migrants
death related activity in a population
Contemporary believers in Thomas Malthus's original ideas. They call for sustainable population growth to be achieved through birth control teachings and regional attention to birth patterns.
Net in-migration
Occurs when the number of immigrants is larger than the number of emigrants.
Net out-migration
occurs when the number of emigrants exceeds the number of immigrants
one-child policy
restrictive, antinatalist policy in China that aimed at immediately reducing China's birth rate to replacement level and below
disease spread acutely over a large area or worldwide
place desirability
Degree of attractiveness of a place to a migrant.
population explosion
Exponential, unprecedented growth in human population size over the last three centuries.
population (age-sex) pyramid
diagram showing the distribution of ages and genders in a particular year
pronatalist population policy
Expansive policy that encourages more live births in a population.
NIR (RNI) (natural increase rate)
natural growth rate of a population, which is CBR minus CDR expressed as a percentage. A positive value indicates a growing population, whereas a negative value indicates population reducing in size. A value equal to zero indicates a stabilizing population.
migrant forced from his or her home by threat, real persecution, or abuse
sum of money sent by a migrant to his or her family back home
replacement-level fertility
when the number of births equals the number of deaths. Usually reached at a TFR between 2.1 and 2.5
decay of the once bustling factory-based economy regions of the northeastern US
scale of inquiry
level of geographic area being investigated. at a very large scale, a neighborhood may be the focus. at a very small scale, the entire earth may be the focus
seasonal movement
Form of cyclic movement when a person moves temporarily because of a change in season.
second agricultural revolution
Coincided with the Industrial Revolution in England and a higher population growth rate, and saw the development of improved sanitation, storage, and fertilization techniques, allowing for greater food output.
growth of the economy in the sunny regions of the southern US that developed as the dominance of the factory-based economy in the northeastern US decreased
TFR (total fertility rate)
number of children predicted to be born to a woman as she passes through the fecund years
measure that is difficult to pinpoint; occurs when a population size is below its carrying capacity and cannot sustain the economic development it has reached
United Nations growth scenarios
predictions by the United Nations that yield high, medium, and low population growth forecasts for the Earth's future
United Nations population conferences
united nations conferences held in 1974, 1984, 1994, and 2004 to address population. international controversies and tensions beside population drove the approaches taken at each conference, with the most recent focusing on empowering women as a primary approach to reducing global population growth
pertaining to the city, as opposed to rural, pertainng to the farmlands
urban migration
migration into cities from rural areas
US Quota Act of 1921
Immigration legislation that limited the number of people from any one country and discriminated against Asians and favored European migrants.
Spanish-speaking ethnic neighborhood
religious branch
large division within a religion
caste system
system of social levels defined by one's ancestry and job, traditionally in India (Hindu)
East Asian belief system originally taught by Confucius, stressing morals for all aspects of life
pidgin language that has become the language of the people being dominated by invaders
cultural diffusion
process by which a cultural element spreads from its hearth across space and time. There are two forms: expansion and relocation
cultural geography
field of human geography that analyzes how and why culture is expressed in different ways in different places
cultural homogeneity
occurs when cultures become the same, or uniform, and local diversity is decreased
cultural imperialism
invasion of a culture into another with the intent of dominating the invaded culture politically, economically, and/or socially
cultural nationalism
Movement to protect one's culture from invasion or influence from another culture's perceived invasion or influence and threat to one's own culture. Highly related to the emotional attachment an individual has for his/her culture.
culture complex
unique combination of culture traits for a particular culture group
culture regions
area in which a culture system is found or is prevalent
culture system
collection of culture complexes that shape a group's common identity
culture trait
single piece of a culture's traditions and practices
denomination (religion)
group of common congregations within a branch of a religion
dowry death
Murder of a bride by her husband's family because her father failed to pay the dowry
The right to vote
ethnic enclave
another name for an ethnic neighborhood surrounded by an unwelcoming, discriminatory, or hostile ethnic group or groups
ethnic religon
religion that comprises one group of people or exists in one place and does not seek converts
using one's own cultural identity as the superior standard by which to judge others; often causes discriminatory behavior
category of classifying humans reflecting not just biological but also social differences between men and women
gender gap
difference in social, economic, and political power and opportunity between men and women
killing of one racial or ethnic group by another
independent innovation (or invention)
Invention of the same phenomenon by two culture hearths without knowing about the other's invention or, sometimes, existence
Indo-Gangetic Hearth
Hearth near the Indus and Ganges rivers where Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism originated
interfaith boundary
boundary that divides space between two or more religions (ex. Israeli and Palestine)
intrafaith boundary
boundary that divides space among different groups within a particular religion, such as among branches, denominations, or sects
language divergence
occurs when new languages or dialects grow from one original source because of the migration of original speakers to new lands or contact with new languages
language extinction
occurs when a people's language is no longer used in the world
language replacement
Occurs when invaders replace with their own language the language of the people whom they conquer.
longevity gap
difference between life expectancies of men and women
maladaptive diffusion
Adoption of a diffusing trait that is impractical for a region or culture.
maternal mortality rate
death rate among women giving birth
migrant diffusion
Type of relocation diffusion in which the spreading phenomenon's epicenter moves with the relocating group of users or carriers, like the influenza's usual diffusion pattern.
monolingual state
country in which only one language is spoken
monotheistic religion
Religion based on belief in one god or deity.
multilingual state
country in which more than one language is spoken
nonmaterial culture
pieces of a culture that are intangible, such as beliefs and attitudes
pidgin language
Simplified version of a lingua franca adopted by a group of people to trade and communicate.
political ecology
Study of cultural geography through the lens of the relationships government and economic systems create between human cultures and their environments.
polytheistic religion
religion based on belief in many gods or deities
First form of language that gave rise to the Indo-European family. Believed to have spread through either the Kurgan conquests or through farming technology
regional identity
Common identification a group of people has with a particular place.
reverse reconstruction
Process of tracing a language's diffusion. The process begins with the most recent places of the language's existence and moves backward through time, comparing geographic places and groups of people using the same or similar words.
s-curve diffusion pattern
Diffusion often follows this pattern of a slower pace in the innovation stage, followed by a rapid diffusion pattern in the majority-adopter stage, and finishing in a slower-paced "laggard" stage.
semitic hearth
hearth near modern-day Israel where Judaism, Christianity, and Islam originated
syncretic faith blending Buddhism with local practices predominant
social distance
measurement of how "distant" or different two ethnicities or social groups are from each other
spatial diffusion
spread of any phenomenon (such as a disease) across space and time
standard language
acceptable form of a given language as declared by political or societal leaders
Sunni muslim
one of the two major branches of Islam - the largest, known as the orthodox branch supporting only descendants of Muhammad
Shiite muslim
one of the two major branches of Islam - support descendants of Ali as religious leaders
syncretic religion
religion blending elements from various religions
Taoism (Daoism)
East Asian belief system stressing balancing the forces of humanity and nature, taught originally by Laozi
government run by a religion
Equal exchange of cultural traits between two cultures; a form of cultural convergence.
administration phase of boundary creation
Phase in which a government enforces the boundary it has created.
allocational boundary dispute
conflict over resources that may not be divided by the border, such as natural gas reserves beneath the soil
antecedent boundary
boundary that existed before the human cultures grew into current form
Division of a region or state into smaller units, usually along ethnic lines
economic alliance (and precursor to the current European Union among Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg established before the end of World War II
buffer state
independent country that exists between two larger countries that are conflicting
buffer zone
area consisting of two or more countries located between two larger countries in conflict
confederate governmental structure
organizational structure comprising a weak central government and regional governments holding the majority of power.
core of a state
region in a state wherein political and economic power is concentrated, like the nucleus of a cell
cultural political boundary
political boundary that marks changes in the cultural landscape, such as a boundary dividing territory according to religion or language
definitional boundary dispute
Conflict over the language of the border agreement in a treaty or boundary contract
definition phase in boundary creation
The phase in which the exact location of a boundary is leagally described and negotiated
delimitation phase in boundary
Phase in which a boundary's definition is drawn onto a map.
demarcation phase of boundary creation
Phase in which the boundary is visibly marked on the landscape by a fence, line, sign, wall or other means.
domino theory
notion that democratic allies must protect lands from falling to the communists because one such communist acquisition creates others, ultimately resulting in communist domination of the world. This theory led to the containment doctrine, intended to keep the communists from acquiring new lands, such as Vietnam
political enclave
part of a state surrounded completely by another state. similar to ethnic enclave
Powerful emotional attachment people have for their nation when it is a minority within a state, making them feel they are different from the rest of the state's people.
European Economic Community (Common Market)
supranational economic alliance of European countries wanting to form a European market. Established in 1958, it was a precursor to the current European Union
EU (European Union)
supranational organization of nearly 25 member-states in Europe that have integrated for improved economic and political cooperation
enclave that is a territorial political extension of another state
exclusive economic zone
according to the UNCLOS, a 200-nautical-mile area extending along a state's coast to which that state has economic rights
federal governmental structure
organizational structure with a central government that shares power with strong regional governments
forward capital
capital city built by a state to achieve a national goal
geometric political boundary
straight- line political boundary separating territories that do not relate to cultural or physical features
branch of political geography that analyzes how states behave as political and territorial systems
international sanctions
Punishments in the form of economic and/or diplomatic limits or even isolation
locational boundary dispute
Conflict over the location or place of a boundary
Mackinder's heartland theory
Geopolitical theory that Eurasia was the "world island" and the key to dominating the world. Ruling this world island required controlling eastern Europe; linked to the domino theory.
median-line principle
Statement in UNCLOS declaring that when there is not enough water for each country on opposite sides of the sea to have 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone, the two or more countries involved will divide the water evenly
economic system in which colonies are obtained to supply the colonizer with raw materials to ship back home and use in making products for the population in the mother country -European governments controlled economic actifvity and aimed to gain as many new colonies as possible to increase their nations' wealth and supplies
very small state, such as Singapore
multicore state
state with more than one core region
group of people who share a common culture and identify as a cohesive group
neocolonialism (or postcolonial dependency)
continued economic dependence of new states on their former colonial masters; the basic principle of dependency theory
new world order
Multilayered international situation, or landscape, that has existed since the end of the Cold War.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
supranational organization formed during the cold war to combat the expansion of communist states
operational boundary dispute
Conflict over the way a boundary should operate or function, such as the conflict over allowing migration across the border
organic theory
Friedrich Ratzel's geopolitical theory that states (countries) are living organisms that hunger for land and, like organisms, want to grow larger by acquiring more nourishment in the form of land.
personal space
amount of area a person claims as his or her own territory into which others may not enter without permission
physical (or natural) political boundary
Political boundary that separates territories according to natural features in the landscape. Boundaries created with naturally occurring features. Political boundaries that correspond with prominent physical features such as mountain ranges or rivers.
political geography
study of human political organization of the earth at various geographic levels
primate city
city that is not only the political nucleus but also it many times more economically powerful than any other city in the state
protruded (or prorupt) state
state with a piece that protrudes from its core area as an arm juts off from the main body
relict boundary
Boundary that no longer functions as a boundary but only as a reminder of a line that once divided space.
rimland theory
Nicolas Spykman's theory defining the rimland to be all of Eurasia's periphery, not its core of Russia and Central Asia. This rimland was the key to controlling the world island
satellite state
Country controlled by a more powerful state
State or group of states that exists within a sphere of competition between larger states.
subsequent boundary
boundary that grows after significant settlement has occurred, rather than existing before the growth of human cultures, as with an antecedent boundary
superimposed boundary
Boundary forcibly put on a landscape by outsiders.
control over a space and the assumption of ownership to that space
territorial morphology
Relationship between a state's geographic shape, size, relative location, and political situation.
unitary governmental structure
Organizational structure in which one main governmental decision-making body exists for the entire state. Regions within the country may have their own local governments, but they are weak and usually serve only as administrative organs of the primary government based in the country's capital.
UN (United Nations)
supranational organization of nearly 200 member-states bound together to create collective security through diplomatic cooperation
capital-intensive farm
Farm that makes heavy use of machinery in the farming process.
commercial farming
Growing food to be sold in groceries and markets, not just to be eaten by the farmers themselves.
Growth of milk-based products for the marketplace.
debt-for-nature swaps
Efforts to preserve natural farmland by forgiving international debts owed by developing countries in exchange for those countries protecting natural land resources from human destruction.
enclosure movement
As feudalism faded away and capitalism grew, this movement divided the common farm into individual farming plots.
Mass starvation resulting from prolonged undernutrition in a region during a certain period.
genetic modification
Form of biotechnology that uses scientific, genetic manipulation of crop and animal products to improve agricultural productivity and products.
hunters and gatherers
Nomadic people who do not remain stationary but follow herds of wild animals and forage for plants for survival.
labor-intensive farm
Farm that uses much human labor.
land rent
Price a farmer must pay for each acre of land.
large-scale grain farm
Extensive commercial grain farm where the grain typically is grown to be exported to other places for consumption.
Mediterranean agriculture
Type of farming involving wheat, barley, vine, and tree crops and grazing for sheep and goats.
mixed crop and livestock farming
Category of agriculture in which farmers both grow crops and raise animals.
open-lot system
System of agricultural land distribution in which all villagers worked on one large plot of community farmland to produce a crop to eat.
Breeding and herding of animals to produce food, shelter, and clothing for survival.
plantation agriculture
Farming that involves large-scale operations, known as plantations or agricultural estates, specializing in the farming of one or two high-demand crops for export.
seed agriculture
Developed later than vegetative planting, this type of farming involves planting seeds rather than simply planting part of the parent plant.
soil erosion
Loss of the nutrient-rich top layer in soil.
subsistence farming
Growing only enough food to feed the farmer's own families.
sustainable yield
Rate of crop production that can be maintained over time.
Plot of land prepared by subsistence farmers using the slash-and-burn method.
third agricultural revolution
Period in which agriculture became globalized and industrialized, and new technologies increased the food supply.
truck farming
Commercial flower farm or garden.
Case of not getting enough calories or nutrients.
vegetative planting
Process of cultivating by simply cutting off a stem of another plant or by dividing roots of a plant; developed before seed agriculture.
Clumping together of industries for mutual advantage.
agglomeration economy
Positive effects of agglomeration for clustered industries and for the consumers of their products.
Asian Tigers
Group of new industrial countries comprising of Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore.
backwash effect
Occurs when other regions suffer a drain of resources and talent due to agglomeration in another region.
big mac index
Tool of calculating purchasing power parity that compares prices of a Big Mac throughout the world.
Giving a price tag or value to something that was not previously perceived as having a money-related value.
conglomerate corporation
Massive corporation operating a collection of smaller companies that provide it with specific services in its production process.
Unclumping of industries because if the negative effects and higher costs associated with overcrowding.
development gap
Widening difference between development levels in more developed and less developed countries.
System of production, consumption, and distribution.
Type of tourist attraction built around an environmentally friendly activity that aims to preserve the earth and its resources.
EPZ (export processing zone)
Region of a less developed country that offers tax breaks and loosened labor restrictions to attract export-driven production processes.
fair trade
Policies that favor oversight of foreign direct investment and outsourcing that ensure that workers throughout the world are guaranteed a living wage for their work, enough to survive in their home countries.
footloose industy
Industry not bound by locational constraints and able to choose to locate wherever it wants.
Manufacturing process broken down into differentiated components, with different groups of people performing different tasks to complete the product.
foreign direct investment
Investment by a multinational corporation in a foreign country's economy.
free trade
Concept of allowing multinational corporations to outsource without any regulation except for the basic forces of market capitalism.
global warming theory
Argues that the earth's surface temperature is gradually rising because of the greenhouse effect.
greenhouse effect
Rise in the average temperature on the earth as a result of the build up of polluting outputs of industrialization.
Value of total outputs of goods and services produced IN a country.
high-tech corridor
Place where technology and computer industries agglomerate.
Measurement developed by the UN to rank development levels of countries.
Growth of manufacturing activity in an economy or a region.
informal sector
Network of business transactions that are not reported and therefore not included in the country's GDP and official economic projections.
international trade approach
Method of improving a country's development that pushes the country to identify its unique set of strengths in the world and to channel investment toward building on these strengths.
Country on the economically poorer side of the development spectrum.
liberal development theories
Theories that claim development is a process through which all countries can move.
locational interdependence
Theory that industries choose locations based on where their competitors can move. - Hotellings theory asserts that an industry's locational choices are heavily influenced by the location of their chief competitors and related industries. In other words, industries do not make isolated decisions on locations without considering where other, related industries exist
maquiladora zone
Special economic zone on Mexico's northern border.
market orientation
Result of locating weight-gaining industries near the marketplace for the heavier product.
Country on the wealthier side of the development spectrum.
multinational corporation
This business has headquarters in one country and production facilities in one or more other countries.
new industrial country
Country that has recently established an industrialized economy based on manufacturing and global trade.
new international division of labor
Division of the manufacturing process across several countries, wherein different pieces of the product are made in different countries.
nongovernmental organization
Organization not run by the government but by a charity or private organization.
north-south gap
Pattern of development levels in which most MDCs exist in the Northern Hemisphere and LDCs exist in the southern hemisphere.
pacific rim economic region
The four Asian Tigers make up this core region.
primary economic activities
Economic activities that revolve around getting raw materials from the earth.
Selling of publicly operated industries to market-driven corporations.
purchasing power parity
Measurement tool of calculating exchange rates so that each currency buys an equal amount of goods as every other currency.
quaternary economic activities
Include assembling, distributing, and processing of information.
quinary economic activities
Subset of Quaternary activities that involves the highest-level of decision making.
secondary economic activities
Economic activities related to processing raw materials.
self-sufficiency approach
Approach to improving economic development by building a country's independence from foreign economies and fostering its ability to provide for its own people.
spatially variable costs
Costs that vary depending on the location of an industrial activity.
special economic zone
Region offering special tax breaks, eased environmental restrictions and other incentives to attract foreign business and investment.
structural adjustments
Stipulations that require the country receiving an international loan to make economic changes.
structuralist theories
Argue that LDCs are locked into a vicious cycle of entrenched underdevelopment by the global economic system that supports an unequal structure.
substitution principle
Asserts that an industry will choose to move to access lower labor costs despite higher transportation costs.
tertiary economic activities
Economic activities that move, sell, and trade the products made in primary and secondary activities.
weight-gaining process
Process that takes raw materials and creates a heavier, final product.
weight-losing process
Manufacturing process that takes raw materials and coverts them into a product that is light than the raw materials that went into making the finished product.
basic employment sector
group of economic functions that bring money into an urban place and represent the city's primary functions
bid-rent curve
graph showing the predicted decline in cost of land and population density as you move away from the CBD in the concentric zone model
original core of a city's economy, like the nucleus of a cell
central place
urban center that provides services to people living in the surrounding rural areas
colonial city
city whose primary identity is as a colony of an invading or conquering imperial power, often showing forced cultural imprints of the colonizer
cumulative causation
contributing facot to uneven development; occurs when money flows to areas of greatest profit, places where development has already been focused, rather than to places of greatest need
refers to an industrial city whose factory-based economy has transitioned to an economy dominated by the service secoty
area of growth outside the central city and surrounding suburbs; its growth fueled by people exiting the city and suburbs in search of the peace and tranquility of more-rural lifestyles
festival setting
area within an urban place built for community gatherings, such as a park or waterfront
growth of areas of concentrated poverty in urban places
green belt
boundary encircling an urban place and limiting the sprawl of the city, forcing inward development and reinvestment in a city's core
industrial city
city that grew during the Industrial Revolution. Rather than serving mainly as an administrative, religious, trade, or gateway city, its primary function was to make and distributed manufactured products
invasion and succession (or succession immigration)
pattern of inflow of new migrants to the CBD in the concentric zone model and then the related pushing of existing inhabitants outward to rings outside the center, thereby causing changing land use patterns
level of urbanization
percentage of people considered urban
city that has a high degree of centrality and primacy; although not a world city, it exerts high levels of influence and power in the country's economy. All of these have populations over 10 million inhabitants
metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
US Census Bureau geographic unit of area including a central city and all its immediately interacting countries populated by commuters and people directly connected to the central city.; an urbanized region with a minimum of 50,000 residents
multiplier effect
increased economic success and energy created by the addition of new basic-sector jobs
nonbasic employment sector
group of economic functions in a city that shift money within the city, not outside the city as in the basic one
office park
zone of urban land exclusively set aside for corporate offices. Often its developers offer incentives to businesses to locate there
panregional influence
influence that extends beyond the city's own region into the other centers of economic control
peak land value intersection
point of land with maximum accessibility and visibility in the city, usually the center of the CBD in the concentric zone model
most peripheral zone of a Latin American city marked by squatter settlements and abject poverty
planned community
master-planned neighborhood with preformulated architectural designs, built-in community gathering spots, and restrictive covenants
postindustrial city
city whose economy and urban organization are conforming frowns on symmetry and balance and looks more toward diversity and individuality in expression
postindustrial school of architecture and urban design that frowns on symmetry and balance and looks more toward diversity and individuality of expression
preindustrial city
city existing before the Industrial Revolution that served as a trade center and gateway to foreign lands and markets. Often the rural settlements surrounding the urban space provided agricultural products and foodstuffs to the urban dwellers, who in turn provided different economic functions
degree to which a primate city dominates economic, political, and cultural functions in a country. The degree of it is calculated using the formula P1/P2 where P1 is the population size off the city and P2 is the second-largest city in the country
racial steering
now illegal tactic contributing to ghettoization; real estate agents would show people neighborhoods and houses according to their race
range (of a good or service)
maximum distance a person is willing to travel to obtain a good or service
rate of urbanization
speed that the population is becoming urban
restrictive covenants
special laws passed by communities usually to exert control over the way their neighborhood will look and grow, such as laws restricting how people can use their space
shock city
urban place experiencing infrastructural challenges related to massive and rapid urbanziation
spatial competition
assumption in the central place theory that implies that central places compete with each other for the customers
squatter settlement (or barriada)
makeshift, unsafe housing from any scraps people can find on land they neither rent nor own
star-shaped city pattern
early shape of city growth before automobile dominance in which lines of public transportation radiated from the CBD in a star pattern. It maintained the dominance of the CBD
street morphology
layout or pattern streets
growth of lower-density housing, industry, and commercial zones outside the CBD
modern form of commuting that involves only the commuting of information, not the worker, through use of the telephone and Internet technology, allowing people to send info and communication over long distances (For example, this book was writing in Tennessee, sent to California for editing, and then transmitted to new jersey for publication, all via email)
urban banana
arch of the dominant overland, trade-based cities stretching from London to Tokyo in the 1500s before the rise of sea-based trade and exploration
urban hearth area
area where an urban lifestyle and civilization started and from which they diffused
urban hierarchy
system of cities consisting of various levels, with few cities at the top level and increasingly more settlements on each lower level, The position of a city within the hierarchy is determined by the diversity and level of central place functions it provides
urban sprawl
diffusion of urban land use and lifestyle into formerly nonurban, often agricultural lands; has raised continued problems related to uneven development and changing land use patterns
urban system
network of urban places; part of an interlocking web of interacting cities
world city
powerful city that controls a disproportionately high level of the world's economic, political, and cultural activities. Sometimes called a global city, it has a high degree of centrality in the global urban system
DTM (demographic transition model)
model - in four stages of transition from an agricultural subsistence economy to an industrialized country, demographic patterns move from extremely high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. In the process, population growth rates skyrocket and then fall again. The CBR first falls because of the influx of better health technology, and then the birth rate gradually falls to match the new social structure.
epidemiologic transition model
model- disease vulnerability shifts in patterns similar to the DTM. in the early stages, plague and pestilence spread as a result of poor medical technology. As industrialization proceeds, disease related to urban life spread. In later stages, diseases once thought eradicated reappear as more-developed societies come into easier contact with less-developed regions struggling with the more primitive diseases, such as smallpox and the bubonic plague. Leading causes of death in later stages are related to diseases associated with aging, such as heart disease.
gravity model of spatial interaction
model- when applied to migration, larger places attract more migrants than do smaller places. Additionally, destinations that are more distant have a weaker pull effect than do closer opportunities of the same caliber
zelinsky model of migration transition
migration trends follow demographic transition stages. People become increasingly mobile as industrialization develops. More international migration is seen in stage 2 as migrants search for more space and opportunities in countries in stages 3 and 4. Stage 4 countries show less emigration and more intraregional migration
hearth- Indo-Ganetic
prophet or founding thinker- Siddhartha Gautama
sacred text or worship center- Tipitaka; temple
some significant and/or holy places- Bodh Gaya in India
classification- universalizing; neither monotheistic nor .............................polytheistic
major branches or divisions- Theravada, Mahayana, Lamaism, ............................Zen
hearth- Semitic
prophet or founding thinker- Jesus
sacred text or worship center- Holy bible, church
some significant and/or holy places- Jerusalem, Vatican City, ..................Constantinople
classification- universalizing, monotheistic
major branches or divisions-Roman Catholic, Protestant, ......................Eastern Orthodox
hearth- Indo-Gangetic
prophet or founding thinker- unknown
sacred text or worship center- Veda, temple
some significant and/or holy places- Ganges river, many sites in ......................India
classification- ethnic, debatable whether mono or poly
major branches or divisions- no formal major branches, though ......................various local forms exist
hearth- Arabian peninsula
prophet or founding thinker- Muhammad
sacred text or worship center- Koran, mosque
some significant and/or holy places- Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem
classification- universalizing, monotheism
major branches or divisions- Sunni, Shiite
hearth- Semitic
prophet or founding thinker-Abraham
sacred text or worship center- Torah, synagogue
some significant and/or holy places- Jerusalem
classification- ethnic, monotheism
major branches or divisions- Conservative, Reform, Orthodox
hearth- Indo-Gangetic
prophet or founding thinker- Guru Nanak
sacred text or worship center- Guru Granth Sahib; temple
some significant and/or holy places- Golden Temple ......................in Armitsar, India; Punjab, India
classification-universalizing mono
major branches or divisions- no major divisions
Von Thunen model
model- developed by German geographer Johann Heinrich..last name., this model explains and predicts agricultural land use patterns in a theoretical state by varying transportation cost. Given the model's assumptions, the patter that emergence predicts more-intensive rural land uses closer to the market place. These rural land use zones are divided in the model into concentric rings
least cost theory
model- This is Alfred Weber's theory of industrial location, explaining and predicting where industries will locate based on cost analysis of transportation, labor, and agglomeration factors. Weber assumes an industry will choose its location based on the desire to minimize production costs and thus maximize profits. Drawbacks to the model include its assumption of an immobile and equal labor force.
Rowstow's modernization model
model- developed in the 1950s, this model exemplifies the liberal development ideology, as opposed to structuralist theory. Under the model, all countries develop in a five stage process. The development cycle is initiated by investment in a takeoff industry that allows the country to grow a comparative advantage, which sparks greater economic gain that eventually diffuses throughout the country's economy. Drawbacks to this model include its not identifying cultural and historic differences in development trajectories because it is based on north American and western European development histories.
Borchert's Model of Urban Evolution
he created this model in the 1960s to predict and explain the growth of cities in four phase of transportation history: stage 1, the "sail wagon" era of 1790-1830; stage 2, the "iron horse" era of 1830-1870; stage 3, the "steel rail" epoch of 1870-1920; and stage 4, the current era of car and air travel that began after 120
concentric zone model
model - was devised in the 1920s to predict and explain the growth patterns of North American urban spaces. Its main principle is that cities can be viewed from above as a series of concentric rings; as the city grows and expands, new rings are added and old ones change character. Key elements of the model are the CBD and he peak land value intersection
Sector model
this model predicts and explains North american urban growth patterns in the 1930s in a pattern in which similar land uses and socioeconomic groups clustered in linear sectors radiating outward from a CBD, usually along transportation corridors
multiple-nuclei model
developed in the 1950s, this model explains the changing growth pattern of urban spaces based on the assumption that growth occurred independently around several major focoi (or nodes), many of which are far away from the CBD and only marginally connected to it.
urban realms
this model was developed in the 1970s to explain and predict changing urban growth patterns as the automobile became increasingly prevalent and large suburban "realms" emerged. The suburban regions were functionally tied to a mixed-use suburban downtown, or mini-CBD, with relative independence from the original CBD

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