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Hockenbury Chapter 6
Terms in this set (57)
-environmental info registered ("Cocktail Phenomena")
-1/4 sec to 3 sec
-also called "Working" memory
-conscious processing of information, where information is actively worked on
-limited capacity-new info transferred from sensory memory (holds 7 +/- 2 items)
-old info retrieved from long-term memory
-approx. 30 sec
-only info that has been ENCODED from short-term memory is stored
-organizes and stores information
more passive form of storage than working memory
Encoding & Storage is involved in what memory stage(s)?
between Short-Term & Long-Term
Retrieval is involved in what memory stage(s)?
between Short-Term & Long-Term
Attention is involved in what memory stage(s)?
Sensory memory to Short-term memory
Maintenance Rehearsal is used in what memory stage?
Short-term memory (working)
Mental or verbal repetition of information allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 30 seconds
... NOT an effective strategy for encoding information into long-term memory
process that controls movement from working to long-term memory store
process that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory store
Unconscious encoding of information
What did you eat for lunch today?
Was the last time you studied during the day or night?
You know the meanings of these very words you are reading. Are you actively trying to process the definition of the words?
Requires attention and conscious effort
Memorizing your notes for your upcoming Introduction to Psychology exams
Repeating a phone number in your head until you can write it down
memory with awareness; information can be consciously recollected; also called declarative memory
Declarative or conscious memory
Memory consciously recalled or declared
Can use explicit memory to directly respond to a question
Two subtypes of explicit memory
memory without awareness; memory that affects behavior and thoughts
but cannot consciously be recalled; also called nondeclarative memory
there are 3 subtypes, but know only PROCEDURAL MEMORY
ex. typing words
LONG-TERM MEMORY / EXPLICIT MEMORY
information about events or "episodes"
...closely related to autobiographical memory
how to perform different skills, operations, and actions
ex. typing, riding a bike, running, cooking
LONG-TERM MEMORY / EXPLICIT MEMORY
Semantic : Seminar
information NOT tied to personal events... facts, general knowledge, school work
a highly effective strategy for encoding information from short-term memory into long-term memory
focuses on the MEANING of information
2 additional factors that enhance encoding?
Self-reference effect & Visual imagery
3 major categories of Long-term memory
1. procedural memory
2. episodic memory
3. semantic memory
2 dimensions of long-term memory
"long-term memory is NOT a simple, unitary system. instead, it is composed of separate but interacting subsystems and abilities"
1. explicit memory : w/ awareness
2. implicit memory : w/out awareness
How are memories organized?
Related items clustered together to form categories
Related categories clustered together to form higher-order categories
---> Remember list items better if list presented in categories
... poorer recall if presented randomly
Even if list items are random, people still organize info in some logical pattern
Semantic Network Model
Mental links between concepts
common properties provide basis for mental link
Shorter path between two concepts = stronger association in memory
Activation of a concept starts decremental spread of activity to nearby concepts
inability to retrieve previously available information
Why do we forget?
test of LTM that involves retrieving memories without cues; also termed free recall
ex. essay question, short answer
test of LTM that involves remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue
ex. fill in the blank
test of LTM that involves identifying correct information from a series of possible choices
ex. multiple choice, matching
Serial position effect
tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle.
primacy effect : remember the 1st thing
recency : the last thing ("recent")
- When conditions of retrieval are similar to conditions of encoding, retrieval is more likely to be successful
- You are more likely to remember things if the conditions under which you recall them are similar to the conditions under which you learned them
Context effects—environmental cues to recall
State dependent retrieval—physical, internal factors
Mood congruence—factors related to mood or emotions
The recall of very specific images or details surrounding a vivid, rare, or significant personal event; details may or may not be accurate (e.g., 9/11, wedding day, high school graduation)
1. high degree if confidence (passionate!)
2. very vivid; lots of details
The Forgetting Curve
Hermann Ebbinghaus first began to study forgetting by using nonsense syllables
Nonsense syllables are three-letter combinations that look like words but are meaningless (ROH, KUF)
Encoding failure - Info never encoded into LTM ex. recognize the right penny
A brief but intense feeling of remembering a scene or an event that is actually being experienced for the first time.
French for "already seen."
When new memory formed, it creates a memory trace
— a change in brain structure or chemistry
If unused, normal brain metabolic processes erode memory trace
Theory not widely favored today
Memories fade away or decay gradually if unused
Time plays critical role
Ability to retrieve info declines with time after original encoding
"Memories interfering with memories"
Forgetting NOT caused by mere passage of time
Caused by one memory competing with or replacing another memory
Two types of interference
When a NEW memory interferes with remembering OLD information
Example: When new phone number interferes with the ability to remember old phone number
Example: Learning a new language interferes with ability to remember old language
Opposite of retroactive interference
When an OLD memory interferes with remembering NEW information
Example: Memories of where you parked your car on campus the past week interferes with ability find car today
Undesired memory is held back from awareness
Repression—unconscious forgetting (Freudian)
Subjects shown video of an accident between two cars
Some subjects asked: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?
Others asked: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?
Eyewitness Testimony 1
Scripts—type of schema
Mental organization of events in time
Example of a classroom script: Come into class, sit down, talk to friends, bell rings, instructor begins to speak, take notes, bell rings again, leave class, etc.
Eyewitness Testimony 2
Recall not an exact replica of original events
Recall a construction built and rebuilt from various sources
Often fit memories into existing beliefs or schemas
Schema—mental representation of an object, scene, or event
Example: schema of a countryside may include green grass, hills, farms, a barn, cows, etc.
The Misinformation Effect
A memory-distortion phenomenon in which a person's existing memories can be altered
if the person is exposed to misleading information
A memory distortion that occurs when the true source of the memory is forgotten
Can give rise to a false memory: a distorted or fabricated recollection of something that did not actually occur
Memory can be distorted as people try to fit new info into existing schemas
Giving misleading information after an event causes subjects to unknowingly distort their memories to incorporate the new misleading information
Forming False Memories
A person can actually believe an event occurred by imagining the event; called "imagination inflation"
Biological Basis of Memory
--> Karl Lashley searched for a localized memory trace or engram.
Found that maze-learning in rats was distributed throughout the brain
--> Richard Thompson found that memory for simple classically conditioned responses was localized (in the cerebellum).
Biological Basis of Memory
Amnesia—severe memory loss
Retrograde amnesia—inability to remember past episodic information; common after head injury; need for consolidation
Anterograde amnesia—inability to form new memories; related to hippocampus damage
Brain Structures Involved in Human Memory
Gradually Losing the Ability to Remember
Dementia: Progressive deterioration and impairment of memory, reasoning, and other cognitive functions occurring as the result of a disease or a condition
Alzheimer's disease (AD): A progressive disease that destroys the brain's neurons, gradually impairing memory, thinking, language, and other cognitive functions, resulting in the complete inability to care for oneself; the most common form of dementia
Strategies for Boosting Memory
Commit the time
Space study sessions
Organize the information
Elaborate on the material
Use visual imagery
Use a mnemonic device
Explain it to a friend
Reduce interference within a topic
Counteract the serial position effect
Use contextual clues
Sleep on it
Forget the ginkgo biloba
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