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chemistry ch 5
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Gravity
Terms in this set (21)
energy level
the specific energies an electron in an atom or other system can have
quantum
the amount of energy needed to move an electron from one energy level to another
quantum mechanical model
the modern description, primarily mathematical, of the behavior of electrons in atoms
atomic orbital
a mathematical expression describing the probability of finding an electron at various locations; usually represented by the region of space around the nucleus where there is a high probability of finding an electron
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons of an atom in its ground state into various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms
aufbau principle
the rule that electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first
Pauli Exclusion Principle
An atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction
spin
a quantum mechanical property of electrons that may be thought of as clockwise or counterclockwise
Hund's Rule
electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible
amplitude
the height of a wave's crest
Wavelength
the distance between adjacent crests of a wave
Frequency
the number of wave cycles that pass a given point per unit of time; frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional to each other
hertz
the unit of frequency, equal to one cycle per second
electromagnetic radiation
energy waves that travel in a vacuum at a speed of 2.998 x 10 to the 8th m/s
spectrum
wavelengths of visible light that are separated when a beam of light passes through a prism; range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
atomic emission spectrum
the pattern formed when light passes through a prism or diffraction grating to separate it into the different frequencies of light it contains
Planck's constant
a number used to calculate the radiant energy (E) absorbed or emitted by a body based on the frequency of radiation 6.62607004 × 10-34 m2 kg / s
photoelectric effect
the ejection of electrons by certain metals when they absorb light with a frequency above a threshold frequency
photon
a quantum of light; a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that interacts with matter similarly to particles
ground state
the lowest possible energy of an atom described by quantum mechanics
Heisinberg Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time.
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