Environmental Science Chapter 4

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Terms in this set (...)

ecosystem
all of the organisms living in an area together with their physical environment
biotic factors
living things (animals, fungi, bacteria, plants)
abiotic factors
nonliving things (air, water, rocks, sand, light)
organism
an individual living thing
species
a group of organisms that can mate to produce fertile offspring
population
a group of the same species that live in the same place
community
a group of various species that live in the same place & interact with each other
habitat
the place an organism lives
hereditary
passing genetic information from parent to offspring
natural selection
the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive & reproduce with more success than less well adapted individuals
evolution
a change in the genetic characteristics of a population from generation to the next
adaptation
an inherited trait that increases an organisms chance of survival & reproduction in a certain environment
coevolution
the process of two species evolving in response to long term interactions with each other
artificial selection
the selective breeding of organisms by humans for specific characteristics
resistance
the ability of one or more organisms to tolerate a particular chemical designed to kill it
nucleus
part of a cell that consists of a membrane that surrounding that cell's genetic material
cell walls
structures that surround the cells of Plants, Fungi, and some Bacteria & provides them with support
archaebacteria
often found in extreme places (hot springs)
fungus
an consumer whose cells have nuclei & cell walls
protists
a diverse group of both unicellular & multicellular organisms
gymnosperms
woody plants that produce seeds, but their seeds are enclosed in fruits
angiosperm
flowering plants that produce seeds in fruit
The energy in most ecosystems comes from
sun
Organisms can adapt
other organisms and their physical surroundings
For evolution to occur in a population, individuals must
reproduce
An organism is resistant to a chemical if it
has a gene that enables it to break down the chemical
Most scientists classify organisms into
four kingdoms and three domains
Most land animals depend on angiosperms for
food
Bacteria
fix nitrogen into the living environment
type of algae that uses energy from the sun to make food
giant kelp, seaweed, phytoplankton
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