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UNIT 2 GOVERNMENT - NALBANDIAN
Terms in this set (71)
A body of attitudes, beliefs, and views pertaining to specific issues held by a significant proportion of a society.
Slant toward a particular belief
Ideas spread to influence public opinion
Means of communication such as newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet that can reach large, widely dispersed audiences.
freedom from bias and outside factors that may influence the results of a poll
A choice that government makes in response to a political issue. A policy is a course of action taken with regard to some problem.
the aggregation (collection) of views shared by a segment of society on issues of interest or concern to people
the process by which people acquire political beliefs
a survey of people scientifically selected to provide opinions about something
the group of people who take part in a poll
the margin of error that indicates a poll's accuracy
a poll that surveys a randomly selected fraction of voters after they have voted
How are public policy and public opinion related?
public opinion helps shape public policy, which in turn helps share public opinion
What are the 2 was public opinion can be viewed?
1. considering the "public" as a single, centralized body with decisions potentially being led by important political/social leaders
2. considering the "publics" as many separate, individuals where people's attitudes lead public opinion and public agenda
What are the 4 factors that influence people's opinions?
family, school, work, personal factors (age, race, gender, religion)
What 2 areas is media's effect on public opinion and public policy most visible?
1. monitors, shapes, and determine public agenda
2. covers the electoral process
How does the media shape public opinion?
1. in the issues it covers/chooses not to cover
2. type of coverage
What are the 4 major criticisms of mass media?
1. bias in reporting
2. bias in story selection
3. factual inconsistency
4. media consolidation
What is the most popular (#1 source) of news?
special interest group
a collection of people who hold similar views and goals
political action committee
an organization created to raise and contribute money legally to the campaigns of political candidates
a type of business group that represents certain industries or parts of industries
organizations of workers who do the same job or work in related industries
to publicly declare support for a candidate
contacting public officials to persuade them to support certain interests
the name given to the lowest level of an organization or society
What are the 3 activities of special interest groups?
organizing interests; providing means for political participation; supplying information to the public and policymakers
What are the 6 major types of interest groups?
agricultural groups, business groups, labor groups, cause-based groups, societal groups, professional groups
What are the 4 functions of interest groups?
1. endorsing candidates [helping elect candidate who support their views]
2. lobbying [groups influencing policymakers to make decisions]
3. informing public opinion [finding people to express and explain an agency's interests/opinions]
4. filing lawsuits [using the legal system to further their interests]
List 1 benefit and 1 criticism of interest groups.
1. benefit: they give minority interests a voice in the political process
2. criticism: have too much influence, or focusing on one narrow issue and ignoring broader concerns
How did Congress try to limit the influence of interest groups in 2007?
passed ethics and lobbying reform legislation to limit some types of lobbyist activities to lessen their influence
an organization that tries to elect its members to public office so that its views can become public policy
one party system
a party system in which a single political party controls government
a party system in which several parties compete for control
a candidate who is not associate with any party
What are 2 benefits of political parties and 2 criticisms of political parties?
benefits: system filters out the extreme/unconventional ideas, provides stability against rapid and disruptive change, political stability to accommodate various views, party loyalty, provide "brand names" that allows voters to not need to know every detail about a candidate
Criticisms: major parties lack unity, discipline, loyalty, cannot fulfill all their campaign promises, some candidates are more concerned with their interests flip flop on issues, parties are more interested in winning elections instead of solving problems
the smallest unit for administering elections and local voting
What party system does the United States have?
a voting district made up of several precincts
Provide 4 examples of American political parties. Include the 2 most important (label them with a star).
, Libertarian, Green
money donated to an individual campaign
money given to a party rather than to a specific candidate
candidates who ask voters to write in his or her name on a ballot
a ballot submitted on or before election day be a voter who cannot be present on election day
when a candidate receives more votes than any other candidate in that election
election in which registered voters may vote for any party's candidates, as long as they only vote for one party. For example, a Democratic voter would help choose a Republican nominee for public office.
a meeting of party members who select the candidates to run for election
election in which a party's candidates for office are chosen directly by voters
election in which only voters rcandidatesegistered as party members may vote for that party's
a party's stand on important issues and the party's general principles
states where support for each candidate is about equal
attacking the opponent during a campaign
a population group defined by a specific characteristic or set of characteristics
a small gathering of people whose response to something is studied and used to predict the response of a larger population
a standard speech that candidates give during a campaign
a very brief segment of a speech or statement
Federal Election Commission
government agencies created to enforce the Federal Election Campaign Act and administer the related public funding program
political party activities that do not support specific candidates
advertisements that support or oppose candidates' view without specifically calling for their election or defeat
a tax groups formed by officeholders that are separate from the officerholders' campaign organizations
exempt organization created to influence an election
people hired by local election officials to manage voting on election day
volunteers whom a party or candidate sends to polling places to ensure that elections are being run fairly
the process of drawing new boundaries for legislative districts
The process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census.
Political Action Committees, or PACs, are created for the express purpose of raising money for particular causes and candidates. Some argue that PACs are simply another way around certain campaign finance limits. Others, however, see PACs as another way for Americans to engage in the political process. PACs exert influence beyond what any single individual could. When looking at PACs one notices that the vast majority represent business interests. For this reason PACs in recent years have been given a pejorative label. More and more candidates are reluctant to accept money from PACs. Nevertheless PACs continue to play an important role in campaigns and elections.
A republic in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies.
The act of trying to influence a politician or bureaucrat. Usually lobbyists are highly paid insiders with access to people in power (revolving door). Major weapon of corporate interest groups.
Organize people with similar concerns, inform the public and elected officials, link the state and local political system to the national system, and influence policy decisions of government officials.
Voting Rights Act
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
Election to select party's candidate for each office. It is now the main way of selecting party candidates. Most democratic method and simpler than caucus. Greatly weakens the power of party leaders and increases power of ordinary voters.
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