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Nursing Theoretical Basis
Terms in this set (70)
Refers to awareness or perception of reality acquired through insight, learning, or investigation. Knowledge is tentative and can be expanded/refined over time.
Study of knowledge
Scientific knowledge coming from observation, testing, and replication.
Knowledge gained through thought alone.
Harmony, beauty, expression. Incorporates art, creativity, and values.
Moral and Ethical knowledge
What is right versus wrong. Values, social and cultural norms.
Feeling and hunches not guessing, but relies on unconscious pattern recognition and experience.
Knowing the body in relation to physical movement. Balance to perform task.
Set of interrelated concepts, statements, propositions, and definitions, which attempt to account for or characterize some phenomenon.
Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment and Transactional Process
Grand theory. Individuals are social beings, sentiment, rational and reacting. Nurses and clients perceptions, judgments, and actions if congruent lead to goal directed transactions if conflict is present they do not. Relationship statement: If transactions are made in nurse-client relationships, growth and development will be enhanced. Now considered her theory middle range after years of refinement.
Organizing framework that contains concept, theories, assumptions, beliefs, values, principals, and affects the way a discipline interpreters the subject matter or phenomenon of concern.
Person, Health, Nursing, Enviornment.
A cognitive process that allows us to think, identify relationships, and form judgments about information.
Unique and active process of defining, refining, and evolving your personal and professional knowledge.
Process involving the examination and application of research findings or reliable evidence that has been integrated with scientific theories.
Relationships of theory, research, and practice
Each effects one another in a reciprocal, cyclical, and interactive manner.
Learning by listening to others after Civil War. 1872 First nursing school opened.
(1940s into 1950s) Authority was internalized and self emerged- nursing education changing after WWII.
(1950s and 1960s) More direct observation. Multiple models emerging (abdellah, henderson, rogers) 1950 first nursing journal published.
(1970s) Nursing viewed self as scientific discipline (king, neuman, roy).
(1980s to 21st century) Devloping theory to guided practice. Increasing middle range theories.
Central aspects of theory
Phenomena, Assumptions, Concept, Constructs, Relationship statements, Hypothesis.
Designation of an aspect of reality, subject matter that is primary concern of a discipline.
Beliefs about the phenomena one must accept as true to accept a theory about the phenomena as true. May not be testable.
Elements composed of a phenomenon, building blocks of theories and propositions.
how it is measured.
Complex type of concept. Usually constructed by theorist to fit a purpose. (e.g. Maslow's self-actualization)
Specific relationships between concepts. May also be called propositions.
Tentative relationships between concepts. Special type of propositions that can be theoretically tested.
Hard to grasp and very abstract. Theory about a theory.
Nonspecific and composed of primarily abstract concepts (orem, king, roy, rogers, erickson).
More specific and limited number of concepts (benner, leininger, pender, mishel, kolcaba) 1980s and on.
Prescriptive theories or situation specific theories and least complex. May only have 2 to 3 concepts.
Descriptive theories (Factor isolating theories)
Two types: Naming theories-describe the characteristic phenomenon and classification theories-describe the characteristics that are structurally interrelated. Describe, observe, and name concepts, properties, and dimensions, but do NOT explain interrelations. Persevered by some as the most important theory.
Explanatory theories (Fact relating theories)
Relate concepts to one another and describe and specify associations between concepts. Can only be developed once concepts are tested by correlation research.
Predictive theories (situation relating theories)
Describe relationship between concepts. Age generated and tested by experimental research involving manipulation and phenomenon
and/or concepts and how they affect one another.
Prescriptive theory (Situation producing theories)
3 basic components: Specified goals and outcomes, explicit activities to achieve the goal/outcome, and survey list that articulates the conceptual basis for the theory.
A graphic or symbol representation of a phenomena.
Set of interrelated concepts that symbolically represents and conveys a mental image of a phenomenon.
Process of theory development
Concept development, statement development, theory development, testing theoretical statements, application of theory to practice.
Specify, define, clarify
the concepts used describe
phenomenon of interest.
Formulate and analyze
statements between concepts
and their measurement.
Structure and contextualize
components of theory.
Testing of theoretical statements
Validate theoretical relationships with testing.
Application of theory to practice
Research assesses how applied and usefulness.
Going from general reasoning and applying it to specific situations. Broad to narrow.
Start narrow and then go broader.
Test theory applicability and appropriateness in the real world. Researchers measure variables (empirical indicators) rather than concepts. Relationship between research, theory, and practice is undeniable.
Provides results that are relevant to practice either as basic (lab) or applied (practice) research. Theory generating and theory testing. Nursing research that is theory generating is often application of a qualitative approach.
Motivational Interviewing (Miller & Rose 2009 article)
Emerging theory resulting from over 30 years of research. Outcome depends on how well the therapist can perform motivational interviewing.
Borrowed or shared theory
Theory developed by another discipline that is not adapted to the worldview or practice of nursing.
Pros of borrowed theory
May borrow theory to apply to realm of nursing, knowledge belongs to the scientific community and society, Systems theory has a great applicability to nursing, as does various stress, coping, and health belief theories.
Cons of borrowed theory
Only nursing theories can guide actions of disciplines, borrowed theories are tainted when applied to nursing, Must clarify hen use non-nursing theories in nursing context.
Kuhn's Structuring of Scientific Revolutions
Discipline can have multiple paradigms. (e.g. nursing paradigm shifted when middle range theories were developed).
Sociological science theories
Family systems theory, feminist theory, role theory, critical social theory.
Behavioral science theories
Development theory-Erickson; Stress, coping, and adaptation_Lazarus and Folkman's theory; Theory of planned behavior; and Health belief model-Rosenstock 1974.
Cognitive development or interaction theories-Bandura; must consider learning styles ( simple to complex).
Administrative and management theories
Donabedian's quality framework (structure and process to get staff to accept new idea); Theories of organization behavior (diffusion theory); Models of conflict and conflict resolution; and job satisfaction.
Inductive methodology. Systematic generation of theory from systematic research.
Primarily exploratory research. Used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations.
Used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into usable statistics. More structured than qualitative.
Synthesized method of theory evaluation
Scope, purpose, and origins of theory. Major concepts, theoretical propositions, and assumptions. Context for use, theoretical and operational definitions, statements theoretically and operationally defined. Consistent use of concepts, statements, and assumptions. Predicted outcome. Congruence with nursing standards and nursing interventions. Evidence of empirical testing, research support, and validity. Nursing, social, and transcultural relevance. Contributions to nursing and conclusions and implications of this theory.
Scope, purpose, and origins of theory.
Social cognitive theories
Often used in nursing research.
Theory of chronic sorrow
Middle range theory Eakes 1998. Chronic sorrow is periodic recurrence of permanent, pervasive sadness or other grief related feeling associated with significant loss. This theory provides the framework for understanding and working with people following single and ongoing loss. Was developed using concept analysis, literature review, and qualitative studies.
Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory
People should be self-reliant, and responsible for their care, as well as others in their family who need care.People are distinct individuals.Nursing is a form of action. It is an interaction between two or more people.Successfully meeting universal and development self-care requisites is an important component of primary care prevention and ill health.A person's knowledge of potential health problems is needed for promoting self-care behaviors.Self-care and dependent care are behaviors learned within a socio-cultural context.
Roy's Adaptation Theory
It defines adaptation as the adjustment of living matter to other living things and to environmental conditions.Adaptation is a continuously occurring process that effects change and involves interaction and response.Human adaptation occurs on three levels:--- the internal ( self )--- the social (others)--- and the physical ( biochemical reactions )
Ludwig von Bertalanfy's General Systems Theory
It describes how to break whole things into parts and then to learn how the parts work together in " systems".These concepts may be applied to different kinds of systems, e.g.. Molecules in chemistry , cultures in sociology, organs in Anatomy and health in Nursing.
It outlines the process of growth and development of humans as orderly and predictable, beginning with conception and ending with death.The progress and behaviors of an individual within each stage are unique.The growth and development of an individual are influenced by heredity , temperament, emotional, and physical environment, life experiences and health status.
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