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Arts and Humanities
AP Lang - Rhetorical Strategies
Terms in this set (53)
the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words. Example: Sally Sells SeaShells at the SeaShell Store.
is a figure of speech that refers to a well-known story, event, person, or object in order to make a comparison in the readers' minds. Example: relating to the bible.
when the meaning of a word, phrase, or sentence is uncertain. There could be more than one meaning. When statements are made like such, you confuse the reader and
is a literary device in which a word or pronoun in a line or sentence refers to an earlier word. Example: While giving treats to children or friends offer them whatever they like.
is a literary device that puts two contrasting ideas together. Example: "We must learn to live as brothers or perish together as fools."
is a statement of truth or opinion expressed in a concise and witty manner. The term is often applied to philosophical, moral, and literary principles. Example: A barking dog never bites.
is a figure of speech sometimes represented by an exclamation, such as "Oh." A writer or speaker using apostrophe speaks directly to someone who is not present or is dead, or speaks to an inanimate object. Example: "Oh"
when a noun or word is followed by another noun or phrase that renames or identifies it, this is called appositive. This is a literary device that appears before or after a non or noun phrase. Example: A Christmas Memory (by Truman Capote) - "Christmas Eve afternoon we scrape together a nickel and go to the butcher's to buy Queenie's traditional gift, a good gnawable beef bone.
is a writing style where conjunctions are omitted in a series of words, phrases, or clauses. It is used to shorten a sentence and focus on its meaning. Example: Julius Caesar leaving out the word "and" between the sentences "I came. I saw. I conquered."
is a rhetorical device in which two or more clauses are balanced against each other by the reversal of their structures in order to produce an artistic effect. Example: Never let a fool kiss your or a kiss fool you.
a sentence that contains one main clause or independent clause and at least one subordinate clause or dependent clause. Example: Although I am tired (subordinate clause), I want to go to the midnight movie (main clause).
a meaning that is implied by a word apart from the thing which it describes explicitly. Words carry cultural and emotional associations or meanings, in addition to their literal meanings or denotations. Example: "He's such a dog." - In this sense, the word dog connotes shamelessness, or ugliness.
refers to repetitive sounds produced by consonants within a sentence or phrase. This repetition often takes place in quick succession, such as in "pitter, patter." It is a literary devices used in poetry as well as prose.
is an independent clause followed by a series of subordinate constructions (phrases or clauses) that gather details about a person, place, event, or idea. This is also called cumulative style or right branching. Example: "He dipped his hands in the bichloride solution and shook them - a quick shake, fingers down, like the fingers of a pianist above the keys."
is a form of irony that is expressed through a work's structure: an audience's awareness of the situation in which a work's characters exist differs substantially from that of other characters' and the words and actions of the characters therefore take on a different or contradictory meaning. Example: Two people are engaged to be married but the audience knows that the man is planning to run away with another woman.
is a rhetorical device that is a memorable, brief, interesting, and surprising satirical statement.
refers to polite, indirect expressions that replace words and phrases considered harsh and impolite, or which suggests something unpleasant. Example: Kick the bucket - describes the death of a person.
is language that uses words or expressions with a meaning that is different from the literal interpretation. Example: Hyperbole - The kid ate a million donuts.
literary "sermon", or any serious talk, speech, or lecture providing moral or spiritual advice. Example: The message or lecture of church is technically one of these.
a form of figurative language which is the use of over-exaggeration for the purpose of creating emphasis or being humorous, but it is not intended to be taken literally. Example: The girl ate a million donuts.
when an author attempts to describe something so that it appeals to our sense of smell, sight, taste, touch, or hearing. Example: The cinnamon rolls looked so appealing, you can see the icing warmly melt off the side of the bud while the smell pulled you toward the delicious treat.
is abusive or insulting language. Example: Labeling someone who took credit for your idea as a cheater.
also called anastrophe, in literary style and rhetoric, the sympathetic reversal of the normal order of words and phrases in a sentence, in English, the placing of an adjective after the noun it modifies ("the form divine"), a verb before its subject ("Came the dawn"). Example: What a beautiful picture it is!
the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning. Example: Someone says "How nice!" when you tell them that you have to work all weekend.
is a figure of speech that employs an understatement by using double negatives or, in other words, a positive statement expressed by negating its opposite expressions. Example: saying "its not the best weather today" during a hurricane.
is a statement that contradicts itself and still seems true somehow. Example: "This statement is false."
is a literary device in which parts of the sentence are grammatically the same, or are similar in construction. Example: "To know her is to love her."
a humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing. Example: someone doing this of Hamlet's soliloquy.
an adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or. bookish
has the main clause or predicate at the end. This is used for emphasis and can be persuasive by putting reasons for something at the beginning before the final point is made. It can also create suspense or interest for the reader. Example: In spite of heavy snow and cold temperatures, the game continued.
is a literary technique in which conjunctions (e.g. and, but, or) are used repeatedly in quick succession, often with no commas, even when the conjunctions could be removed.
is an adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies (i.e., refers back to) the subject of the linking verb. This contrasts with an attributive adjective, which typically sits immediately before the noun it modifies. Example: "The wall is purple" - purple is the predicate adjective
is the noun or pronoun that comes after a linking verb. It renames the subject of the sentence. Example: "Mr. Johansson is a teacher." - teacher is the predicate nominative.
is a question that you ask without expecting an answer. The question might be one that does not have an answer. It might also be one that has an obvious answer but you have asked the question to make a point, to persuade or for literary effect. Example: "How should I know?"
is a literary and rhetorical device that is meant to mock, often with satirical or ironic remarks, with a purpose to amuse and hurt someone, or some section of society, simultaneously. Example: "I'm trying to imagine you with a personality."
is a technique employed by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society, by using humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule. It intends to improve humanity by criticizing its follies and foibles. Example: "Weekend Update" from Saturday Night Live
are figures of speech that deal with word order, syntax, letters, and sounds, rather than the meaning of words, which involves tropes.
consists of only one clause. Example: The dog ran fast.
is a literary device that you can easily identify in literary works. Simply, it occurs when incongruity appears between expectations of something to happen, and what actually happens instead. Example: Ralph wakes up late and thinks he is going to be late to school. After rushing around to get dressed, he realizes it is Saturday.
also called a dependent clause—will begin with a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun and will contain both a subject and a verb. This combination of words will not form a complete sentence. It will instead make a reader want additional information to finish the thought. Example: " I first met her in Paris, where I lived as a small child." - Subordinate clause is "where I lived as a small child"
1 : a deductive scheme of a formal argument consisting of a major and a minor premise and a conclusion (as in "every virtue is laudable; kindness is a virtue; therefore kindness is laudable") 2 : a subtle, specious, or crafty argument. Example: All mammals are warm-blooded. Conclusion: Therefore, all black dogs are warm-blooded.
is a literary device in which a part of something represents the whole, or it may use a whole to represent a part. may also use larger groups to refer to smaller groups, or vice versa. Example: The term "coke" is a common one for all carbonated drinks.
refers to a technique adopted by writers to present ideas, characters, or places in such a manner that they appeal to more than one sense, like hearing, sight, smell, and touch at a given time. Example: "The silence was as thick as a forest."
is the use of figurative language, via word, phrase or an image, for artistic effect such as using a figure of speech. The word trope has also come to be used for describing commonly recurring literary and rhetorical devices, motifs or cliches in creative works. Example: I just love doing dishes.
is a figure of speech employed by writers or speakers to intentionally make a situation seem less important than it really is. Example: You win 10 million dollars in a lottery, and you tell a reporter, "I am delighted." Clearly you would be more excited, so this is an example of one.
in which a person says or writes one thing and means another, or uses words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of the literal meaning. Example: Looking at her son's messy room, Mom says, "Wow, you could win an award for cleanliness!"
is a literary term for using one word to modify two other words, in two different ways. Example: "She broke his car and his heart." When you use one word to link two thoughts, you're using one of these.
A complex sentence in which the main clause comes first and the subordinate clause follows
Understatement, the opposite of exaggeration
a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it
omniscient narrator point of view
third-person narrator who sees, like God, into each character's mind and understands all the action going on
conjoining contradictory terms (as in 'deafening silence')
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