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26 terms

Chp. 6 Cell structure and function

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nuclear envelope
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
chromatin
combination of DNA and protein molecules, in the form of long, thin fibers, making up the genetic material in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
chromosome
condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide
nucleolus
ball-like mass of fibers and granules in a cell nucleus
centriole
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope
phospholipid bilayer
two-layer "sandwich" of molecules that surrounds a cell
concentration
the strength of a solution
diffusion
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
equilibrium
When the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution
osmosis
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
isotonic
having a solute concentration equal to that of another solution
hypertonic
having a higher concentration of solute than another solution
hypotonic
having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
facilitated diffusion
pathway provided by transport proteins that helps certain molecules pass through a membrane
active transport
movement of molecules across a membrane requiring energy to be expended by the cell
endocytosis
process of taking material into a cell within vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane
phagocytosis
the process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food
pinocytosis
process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment
exocytosis
process of exporting proteins from a cell by a vesicle fusing with the plasma membrane and spilling the proteins outside the cell
cell specialization
the process in which cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks
tissue
cooperating unit of many similar cells that perform a specific function
organ
unit consisting of several tissues that together perform a specific task
organ system
unit of multiple organs that together perform a vital body function
ATP
main energy source that cells use for most of their work
microtubule
straight, hollow tube of proteins that gives rigidity, shape, and organization to a cell
microfilament
solid rod of protein, thinner than a microtubule, that enables a cell to move or change shape