Intro to Crim Final - Lawton
Terms in this set (44)
A police officer buys a cup of coffee at a convenience store and starts to pay the clerk. The clerk waves the money away and says, You guys protect the rest of us from crime your coffee is free. The officer accepts the coffee and leaves. This demonstrates
"The goal of this system was to promote offender rehabilitation through self-introspection. An example was Eastern State Penitentiary which opened in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1829 and was focused on completely isolating the offender. This demonstrates"
The solitary system
This theory suggested that the modern police were created by the rich and powerful to control the dangerous classes and to prevent their upward mobility in society.
Class control theory
"The concept of a conflict between ideals of what should be, and the observable world as it actually is."
These three historical eras helped shape the role of the police in the United States:
"The Political Era, The Professional Era, and The Community Era"
"These people may exercise a great deal of discretion when making decisions, like who to charge with which crimes, and whether to agree to a plea bargain or take a case to trial. They have the power to determine who will appear in court and on what charges. Because of this discretionary ability they are the most powerful of the primary court actors. Who are they?"
"Over time, the prosecutor representing the state, the defense representing the accused, and the judge serving as legal referee of the proceedings, each comes to know the style of the other to the point where all can anticipate how a case will be processed. This is known as"
"This Era is designed to aid law enforcement, improve the quality of life of its citizenry and promote citizen satisfaction."
The community era
"Prosecutors go by many names in different states, including"
Commonwealth attorneys, District attorneys, States attorneys
"All defendants are presumed to be legally responsible for their actions, unless they are proven not to be, at trial. This is known as"
Presumption of sanity
Who were the subjects in the study?
Training staff and cadets
"An offender, rather than being sent to prison, serves his time on probation. While on probation, he lives and works in the community, but he must follow some special rules and report regularly to a probation officer. This is an example of"
Were overweight subjects more at risk for harm?
"Over time, which of the following systems was most adopted by the states, although without requirements for strict silence and for housing one inmate per cell?"
"In this style of policing, 'the law is the law' and it simply must be enforced, without consideration of individual circumstances."
The legalistic style
"A judge sentences an offender to five years in prison, but then suspends the prison sentence and allows the offender to serve his time on ______________."
How were the subjects of the study exposed to OC spray?
How many subjects completed the study?
This theory states that police agencies were developed to suppress mob violence.
Subjects were from the:
San Diego Regional Training Institute
What were some problems with the police system during the Political Era?
-controlled by local politicians.
-used as pawns in larger political disputes
"This theory asserted that as cities grew, both predators and potential victims moved to the city, increasing vulnerability to urban crime.The police were therefore necessary as integral components of urban society in order to ensure their stability."
"Whatever form of plea bargaining is used, the plea agreement in any case must be agreed upon by the"
The police role in society is shaped by two key concepts:
Order maintenance and the legitimate use of force
"The rules make decisions for inmates, meaning that inmates lose the ability to decide such things as when and where to eat, what to read, what to wear, when to exercise, and so on."
Consider Exhibit 1. How did the subject's position impact the FVC?
All subjects in the restraint position did worse
"Before the end of her sentence, an inmate is approved by a board, which determines if the inmate has been rehabilitated and can be released early. This is an example of"
Robbery is considered a
Criminal offenses are broadly classified into two categories:
Felonies and misdemeanors
Is there evidence to suggest that OC spray puts individuals at risk for asphyxiation or respiratory compromise?
"A correctional agency may have impressive goals or ideas for innovative programs, but without money to fund them, those goals or programs will go unrealized. This demonstrates"
Essential tension of finance
The focus of the Professional Era was
-Crime control-Crime prevention-Offender apprehension
Appellate courts are concerned with
The interpretation and application of laws
The primary goal of this Era was to remove the political element from policing.
The Professional Era
OC stands for:
"Some may feel that the most appropriate decision making occurs when well-trained professionals are able to provide individualized attention to the specifics of each case. On the other hand, correctional case processing often relies on a bureaucratic approach in which discretion is minimized. This demonstrates"
Essential tension of discretion
"Peel strongly advocated for proactive policing, believing that Bobbies should"
Work to prevent crime before it occurs rather than react to crime after it is committed
"The type of correctional institution which is a short-term facility, usually operated by a county sheriff is known as"
Take the example of boot camp. Justifications for boot camps were largely grounded on the ?common sense? belief that such a program ought to work. The problem was that the program did not often work. This demonstrates
Essential tension of research
"The type of correctional institution which is a long-term facility, operated by the state or federal government is known as"
Consider Exhibit 1. How did the OC Spray impact the FVC?
Why is London significant to the American criminal justice system?
Because the English model heavily influenced the American system. "Because it was the location of the first, modern, organized police department"
"In this type of plea-bargaining, someone charged with eight counts of bank robbery may plea to one or two counts and face punishment just for those counts, rather than for all of the robberies."
OC Spray is:
A pepper spray. A non-lethal weapon used by the Police
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