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Hussein-McMahon Correspondence (1915) Cause

Brits wanted support during WWI
Encouraging Arabs to rebel against Ottomans

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence (1915) People

Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, and Husayn bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca.

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence (1915) Description

British have no design on Arab territories after war.
Brits would support Aran Independence in return for a rebellion
Without intervention in internal affairs

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence (1915)

Arabs rebelled
Assisted in Brit victory
Promises unfulfilled after war

Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916) Cause

Brits and French wanted to avoid conflict
Brits wanted to secure oil fields in Iraq
Wanted access to Suex canal

Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916) Description

An agreement between France and Britain
Ottoman Empire divided into 2 categories of control, direct and indirect, with Palestine and holy cities under international control.

Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916) Effects

Basis for mandate system
Disappointed arabs and their hopes for Independence
Conflicted with Hussein-McMahon

Arab Revolt Causes

Arabs not happy with Ottoman rule
Brits encouraged and supported revolt
Allies wanted to distract Ottomans from European battles
Encouraged in Hussein-McMahon

Arab Revolt Description

Arabs rise up against Ottoman rule
TE Lawrence and Brits helped

Arab Revolt Effect

Helped allies win WWI
Ottoman Empire disintegrates

Balfour Declaration (1917) Cause

Brits wanted support from Americans and other Jews
Some Brit politicians believed Jews had historical right in Palestine
Supporting Zionists would provide long term benefits including access to oil and Suez canal

Balfour Declaration (1917) Description

Foreign Secretary Balfour to Baron Rothchild, leader of Brit Jewish community
Brit gov "viewed with favour" the establishment of a national home for Jews

Balfour Declaration (1917) Effect

Incorporated into the Treaty of Sevres

Division of Transjordan mandate into Transjordan and Palestine Cause

Brit needed to give some form of land to Arabs

Division of Transjordan mandate Description

Transjordan Mandate split into Transjordan and Palestine

Division of Transjordan Mandate Effect

Abdulla, son of Hussein, ruler of independent Transjordan state.
Brits supervised the establishment of Jewish home in Palestine
Promises made in Hussein-McMahon Correspondence and Balfour Declaration not upheld

Birth of the Haganah Cause

Increased violence against Jews
Jaffa Attacks- Mayday
Rival political groups clash
Arabs believe they are under attack and launch an offensive
Riots ensue with many injured and dead

Birth of the Haganah Description

Haganah for defence protecting Jews because Brits were incapable
Zionist military operation

Birth of the Haganah Effects

Arabs and Brits targeted
Organisation active throughout mandate
Grew in size after Wailing Wall Riots

The Churchill White Paper Cause

Increasing Jewish violence
The Jaffa attack

The Churchill White Paper Description

Arabs blamed for violence, but they were reacting out of fear for the loss of livelihood
Brits declared that Palestine as a whole should not have been converted into a Jewish National home, but that such a home could be found in Palestine.

The Churchill White Paper Effect

Brit promises to Arabs and Jews were denied
Right of Jewish immigration (Aliyah) confirmed
Should not exceed economic capacity.
Brit could now limit Jews

Wailing Wall Riots (1929) Cause

Armed Arabs attacked Jewish worshippers at Wailing Wall

Wailing Wall Riots (1929) Description

Rioting led to 116 Arab deaths and 113 Jewish deaths
Shaw commission concluded the cause, Arab feelings of hostility and disappointment of political aspirations as well as fear of the economic future.

Wailing Wall Riots (1929) Effects

Sir John Hope-Simpson sent to investigate, leading to the Hope-Simpson report.

Hope-Simpson Report and Passfield White Paper Cause

Wailing Wall attack

Hope-Simpson Report and Passfield White Paper Description

The report expressed concern over economic difficulties of Arab farmers.
Claimed that there was insufficient Palestinian land, that could not support the flow of immigration.
The paper severely limited Jewish immigration, and states that Brits intend to fulfil mandate obligations on both sides.

Hope-Simpson Report and Passfield White Paper Effect

Report claimed to be included in Passfield paper
Jewish imigration further limited

Great Arab Revolt (1936) Cause

Immediate: Murder of 2 Arabs and Jews
Long term: Gap between Jews and Arabs widens
Eco, political, social grievances

Great Arab Revolt (1936) Description

Mass demonstrations and mob attacks against communities.
Guerilla attacks against Brit.
Violence against Jews escalated

Great Arab Revolt (1936) Effects

High death tolls, especially for Palestinians
Severe Brit retaliation Arrest, imprisonment, execution of Arab military leaders and Arab nationalism)
Unity leads to brith of Palestinian identity
Brit forced to take problems seriously.

Peel Commission Report (1937) Cause

Arab Revolt

Peel Commission Report (1937) Description

Admitted contradictory obligations impossible to fulfil.
Proposed Partition of Palestine

Peel Commission Report (1937) Effect

Recommendations rejected
Situation worsened

British White Paper of 1939 Cause

Arab Revolt

British White Paper of 1939 Description

Questions idea of Palestine as a Jewish state
Jewish immigration limited to 15,000 a year
Land transfer to Jews restricted in some zones
Palestine Independent in 10 years

British White Paper of (1939) Effect

Zionists reject because it contradicts Balfour
Arabs reject as it didn't call for immediate Independence
Terrible for Euro Jews fleeing persecution
Zionists committed to a state where they can be majority

Last Years of British Mandate Cause

WWII bankrupted Brits, there wasn't enough money to maintain mandate
Jewish uprising against Brits and Arab-Jewish tension close to civil war
By 1947, 127 Brit soldiers killed by Jewish attacks.

Last Years of British Mandate Description

Murder of British officials
Exodus ship on it's way to drop off Jewish immigrants in Palestine during WWII, Brits sent it away

Last Years of British Mandate Effect

Brit out, UN in

UNSCOP cause

Brits hand over issues to UN
UN security council asked to investigate and resolve issues in Palestine.

UNSCOP Description

UN special committee on Palestine
Demanded end of Brit mandate and recommended a partition that would include an Arab and Jew state

UNSCOP Effects

UN voted in favour of plan, Arabs and Jews take up arms.
1947 until declaration of Israeli state in 1948 (when Arab-Israeli war broke out) Palestine in civil war between Arabs and Jews.
Brits couldn't intervene to stop violence (Rode it out until it was someone else's issue)
May 14, 1948 David Ben-Gurion proclaimed state of Israel

1948 War Cause

UNSCOP partition plan passed by UN
Jews celebrated, Arabs were appalled and pledged to prevent formation of Jewish state in Palestine.
Reflected long-standing tensions, conflicts, and rivalries between the two groups

1948 War Description

Israeli declaration of Independence made one day before mandate ended
May 15th Arab League (Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Transjordan) invaded Israel to liberate Palestine.
Jewish-Arab civil war had become regional, between Israel and surrounding Arab states.
An-Nakbah for Palestinians, complete catastrophe and disaster

1948 War Effect

Palestinians lost chance at own state, refuges
Israeli state increased by 21%
For Arab Nations, defeat in war led to instability ad result of domestic challenges to leadership lost war.
Egyptian monarchy overthrown in 1952
Arab states gain territory, Transjordan takes West Bank, Egypt takes Giza strip, showing that Arab war aims were not just to support Palestine.

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