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Causes of War in the Middle East

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Hussein-McMahon Correspondence (1915) Cause
Brits wanted support during WWI
Encouraging Arabs to rebel against Ottomans
Hussein-McMahon Correspondence (1915) People
Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, and Husayn bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca.
Hussein-McMahon Correspondence (1915) Description
British have no design on Arab territories after war.
Brits would support Aran Independence in return for a rebellion
Without intervention in internal affairs
Hussein-McMahon Correspondence (1915)
Arabs rebelled
Assisted in Brit victory
Promises unfulfilled after war
Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916) Cause
Brits and French wanted to avoid conflict
Brits wanted to secure oil fields in Iraq
Wanted access to Suex canal
Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916) Description
An agreement between France and Britain
Ottoman Empire divided into 2 categories of control, direct and indirect, with Palestine and holy cities under international control.
Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916) Effects
Basis for mandate system
Disappointed arabs and their hopes for Independence
Conflicted with Hussein-McMahon
Arab Revolt Causes
Arabs not happy with Ottoman rule
Brits encouraged and supported revolt
Allies wanted to distract Ottomans from European battles
Encouraged in Hussein-McMahon
Arab Revolt Description
Arabs rise up against Ottoman rule
TE Lawrence and Brits helped
Arab Revolt Effect
Helped allies win WWI
Ottoman Empire disintegrates
Balfour Declaration (1917) Cause
Brits wanted support from Americans and other Jews
Some Brit politicians believed Jews had historical right in Palestine
Supporting Zionists would provide long term benefits including access to oil and Suez canal
Balfour Declaration (1917) Description
Foreign Secretary Balfour to Baron Rothchild, leader of Brit Jewish community
Brit gov "viewed with favour" the establishment of a national home for Jews
Balfour Declaration (1917) Effect
Incorporated into the Treaty of Sevres
Division of Transjordan mandate into Transjordan and Palestine Cause
Brit needed to give some form of land to Arabs
Division of Transjordan mandate Description
Transjordan Mandate split into Transjordan and Palestine
Division of Transjordan Mandate Effect
Abdulla, son of Hussein, ruler of independent Transjordan state.
Brits supervised the establishment of Jewish home in Palestine
Promises made in Hussein-McMahon Correspondence and Balfour Declaration not upheld
Birth of the Haganah Cause
Increased violence against Jews
Jaffa Attacks- Mayday
Rival political groups clash
Arabs believe they are under attack and launch an offensive
Riots ensue with many injured and dead
Birth of the Haganah Description
Haganah for defence protecting Jews because Brits were incapable
Zionist military operation
Birth of the Haganah Effects
Arabs and Brits targeted
Organisation active throughout mandate
Grew in size after Wailing Wall Riots
The Churchill White Paper Cause
Increasing Jewish violence
The Jaffa attack
The Churchill White Paper Description
Arabs blamed for violence, but they were reacting out of fear for the loss of livelihood
Brits declared that Palestine as a whole should not have been converted into a Jewish National home, but that such a home could be found in Palestine.
The Churchill White Paper Effect
Brit promises to Arabs and Jews were denied
Right of Jewish immigration (Aliyah) confirmed
Should not exceed economic capacity.
Brit could now limit Jews
Wailing Wall Riots (1929) Cause
Armed Arabs attacked Jewish worshippers at Wailing Wall
Wailing Wall Riots (1929) Description
Rioting led to 116 Arab deaths and 113 Jewish deaths
Shaw commission concluded the cause, Arab feelings of hostility and disappointment of political aspirations as well as fear of the economic future.
Wailing Wall Riots (1929) Effects
Sir John Hope-Simpson sent to investigate, leading to the Hope-Simpson report.
Hope-Simpson Report and Passfield White Paper Cause
Wailing Wall attack
Hope-Simpson Report and Passfield White Paper Description
The report expressed concern over economic difficulties of Arab farmers.
Claimed that there was insufficient Palestinian land, that could not support the flow of immigration.
The paper severely limited Jewish immigration, and states that Brits intend to fulfil mandate obligations on both sides.
Hope-Simpson Report and Passfield White Paper Effect
Report claimed to be included in Passfield paper
Jewish imigration further limited
Great Arab Revolt (1936) Cause
Immediate: Murder of 2 Arabs and Jews
Long term: Gap between Jews and Arabs widens
Eco, political, social grievances
Great Arab Revolt (1936) Description
Mass demonstrations and mob attacks against communities.
Guerilla attacks against Brit.
Violence against Jews escalated
Great Arab Revolt (1936) Effects
High death tolls, especially for Palestinians
Severe Brit retaliation Arrest, imprisonment, execution of Arab military leaders and Arab nationalism)
Unity leads to brith of Palestinian identity
Brit forced to take problems seriously.
Peel Commission Report (1937) Cause
Arab Revolt
Peel Commission Report (1937) Description
Admitted contradictory obligations impossible to fulfil.
Proposed Partition of Palestine
Peel Commission Report (1937) Effect
Recommendations rejected
Situation worsened
British White Paper of 1939 Cause
Arab Revolt
British White Paper of 1939 Description
Questions idea of Palestine as a Jewish state
Jewish immigration limited to 15,000 a year
Land transfer to Jews restricted in some zones
Palestine Independent in 10 years
British White Paper of (1939) Effect
Zionists reject because it contradicts Balfour
Arabs reject as it didn't call for immediate Independence
Terrible for Euro Jews fleeing persecution
Zionists committed to a state where they can be majority
Last Years of British Mandate Cause
WWII bankrupted Brits, there wasn't enough money to maintain mandate
Jewish uprising against Brits and Arab-Jewish tension close to civil war
By 1947, 127 Brit soldiers killed by Jewish attacks.
Last Years of British Mandate Description
Murder of British officials
Exodus ship on it's way to drop off Jewish immigrants in Palestine during WWII, Brits sent it away
Last Years of British Mandate Effect
Brit out, UN in
UNSCOP cause
Brits hand over issues to UN
UN security council asked to investigate and resolve issues in Palestine.
UNSCOP Description
UN special committee on Palestine
Demanded end of Brit mandate and recommended a partition that would include an Arab and Jew state
UNSCOP Effects
UN voted in favour of plan, Arabs and Jews take up arms.
1947 until declaration of Israeli state in 1948 (when Arab-Israeli war broke out) Palestine in civil war between Arabs and Jews.
Brits couldn't intervene to stop violence (Rode it out until it was someone else's issue)
May 14, 1948 David Ben-Gurion proclaimed state of Israel
1948 War Cause
UNSCOP partition plan passed by UN
Jews celebrated, Arabs were appalled and pledged to prevent formation of Jewish state in Palestine.
Reflected long-standing tensions, conflicts, and rivalries between the two groups
1948 War Description
Israeli declaration of Independence made one day before mandate ended
May 15th Arab League (Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Transjordan) invaded Israel to liberate Palestine.
Jewish-Arab civil war had become regional, between Israel and surrounding Arab states.
An-Nakbah for Palestinians, complete catastrophe and disaster
1948 War Effect
Palestinians lost chance at own state, refuges
Israeli state increased by 21%
For Arab Nations, defeat in war led to instability ad result of domestic challenges to leadership lost war.
Egyptian monarchy overthrown in 1952
Arab states gain territory, Transjordan takes West Bank, Egypt takes Giza strip, showing that Arab war aims were not just to support Palestine.