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77 terms

Apologia Biology Module 6# Definitions and Review

This is a huge module packed with tons of information. Because of the necessity for good review, I have included definitions and questions.
STUDY
PLAY
Absorption
The transport of dissolved substances into cells
Digestion
The breakdown of absorbed substances
Respiration
The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy
Excretion
The removal of soluble waste materials
Secretion
The release of biosynthesized substances
Homeostasis
Maintaining the status quo
Egestion
The removal of nonsoluble waste materials
Reproduction
Producing more cells
Cytology
The study of cells
Cell Wall
A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells
Middle Lamella
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells
Plasma Membrane
The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings.
Cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
Ions
Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons.
Cytoplasmic Streaming
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.
Mitochondria
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
Lysosome
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids
Ribosomes
Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within the cell
Rough ER
ER that is dotted with ribosomes
Smooth ER
ER that has no ribosomes
Leucoplasts
Organelles that store starches or oils
Chromoplasts
Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis
Central Vacuole
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes
Waste Vacuoles
Vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion
Phagocytosis
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
Phagocytic Vacuole
A vacuole that holds the matter which the cell engulfs
Pinocytic Vesicle
A vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules
Secretion Vesicle
A vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released.
Golgi Bodies
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell
Microtubules
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tube-like structure
Nuclear Membrane
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
Chromatin
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
water, organic molecules, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, ions
What is the cytoplasm composed of?
respiration
Which of the 11 functions does the mitochondria perform?
digestion
Which of the 11 functions does the lysosome perform?
biosynthesis
The ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis. What type of function is that?
lipids, hormones, steroids
What does the Smooth ER produce?
specialized proteins
What does the Rough ER produce?
Endoplasmic Reticulum
What does ER stand for?
starches or oils
What do the leucoplasts store?
stroma
What is the liquid that chromoplasts are filled with?
turgor pressure
What does the central vacuole produce to keep the cell's shape?
phagocytic vacuole
When a cell engulfs a food particle it forms what?
pinocytic vesicle
When a cell absorbs a large molecule, what is the pocked called that it forms?
proteins and lipids
What do the Golgi Bodies store, modify, and send off?
centrioles
What organelle is responsible for the production of cilia and flagellum?
nucleolus
Where are ribosomes assembled?
ribonucleic acid
What does RNA stand for?
Cytoskeleton
A network of fibers that hold the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
Microfilaments
Fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton
Immediate Filaments
Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments.
Movement
What are the microfilaments primarily responsible for?
Microtubules
What organelle provides a "track" upon which organelles and vesicles can travel through the cell?
strengthening and supporting the cell
What are the intermediate filaments responsible for?
Phospholipid
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group
Passive Transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion
Active Transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane aided by a process that requires energy
Isotonic Solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
Hypertonic Solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution
Plasmolysis
Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of waters
Cytolysis
The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure
Hypotonic Solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution
proteins, cholesterol, phospholipids
What is the plasma membrane composed of?
The glycerol side
Which side (the glycerol or the fatty acid side) of the phospholipid is hydrophilic?
phospholipid bilayer
What is the double layer of phospholipids in the plasma membrane called?
glycoprotein
When a carbohydrate attaches to a protein, the protein is called what?
glycolipid
When a carbohydrate attaches to a phospholipid, the result is what?
hypertonic solution
If a cell implodes, it was probably in what type of solution?
hypotonic solution
If a cell explodes, what type of solution was it in?
Activation Energy
Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going.
Glycolysis, Formation of Acetyl Coenzyme A, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport System
What are the four different stages of cellular respiration?
12 Hydrogen Molecules
How many hydrogen molecules are produced over the entire cellular respiration?
2 ATPs
What is the net gain of ATPs produced in glycolysis?
2 ATPs
How many ATPs are produced in the Krebs Cycle?
32
How many ATPs are produced in the Electron Transport System?
1 Glucose + 6 Oxygen = 6 Carbon Dioxide + 6 Water + 36 ATP Energy
What is the overall reaction in Aerobic Cellular Respiration?