Apologia Biology Module 6# Definitions and Review
This is a huge module packed with tons of information. Because of the necessity for good review, I have included definitions and questions.
The transport of dissolved substances into cells
The breakdown of absorbed substances
The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy
The removal of soluble waste materials
The release of biosynthesized substances
Maintaining the status quo
The removal of nonsoluble waste materials
Producing more cells
The study of cells
A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells
The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings.
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons.
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids
Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within the cell
ER that is dotted with ribosomes
ER that has no ribosomes
Organelles that store starches or oils
Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes
Vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
A vacuole that holds the matter which the cell engulfs
A vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules
A vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released.
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tube-like structure
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
water, organic molecules, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, ions
What is the cytoplasm composed of?
Which of the 11 functions does the mitochondria perform?
Which of the 11 functions does the lysosome perform?
The ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis. What type of function is that?
lipids, hormones, steroids
What does the Smooth ER produce?
What does the Rough ER produce?
What does ER stand for?
starches or oils
What do the leucoplasts store?
What is the liquid that chromoplasts are filled with?
What does the central vacuole produce to keep the cell's shape?
When a cell engulfs a food particle it forms what?
When a cell absorbs a large molecule, what is the pocked called that it forms?
proteins and lipids
What do the Golgi Bodies store, modify, and send off?
What organelle is responsible for the production of cilia and flagellum?
Where are ribosomes assembled?
What does RNA stand for?
A network of fibers that hold the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
Fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton
Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments.
What are the microfilaments primarily responsible for?
What organelle provides a "track" upon which organelles and vesicles can travel through the cell?
strengthening and supporting the cell
What are the intermediate filaments responsible for?
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane aided by a process that requires energy
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution
Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of waters
The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution
proteins, cholesterol, phospholipids
What is the plasma membrane composed of?
The glycerol side
Which side (the glycerol or the fatty acid side) of the phospholipid is hydrophilic?
What is the double layer of phospholipids in the plasma membrane called?
When a carbohydrate attaches to a protein, the protein is called what?
When a carbohydrate attaches to a phospholipid, the result is what?
If a cell implodes, it was probably in what type of solution?
If a cell explodes, what type of solution was it in?
Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going.
Glycolysis, Formation of Acetyl Coenzyme A, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport System
What are the four different stages of cellular respiration?
12 Hydrogen Molecules
How many hydrogen molecules are produced over the entire cellular respiration?
What is the net gain of ATPs produced in glycolysis?
How many ATPs are produced in the Krebs Cycle?
How many ATPs are produced in the Electron Transport System?
1 Glucose + 6 Oxygen = 6 Carbon Dioxide + 6 Water + 36 ATP Energy
What is the overall reaction in Aerobic Cellular Respiration?