62 terms

World Studies Chapter 4 & 7

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Yin and Yang
two forces in the universe, according to Chinese Theory: Yin is the passive, negative force, and Yang the active, positive force
1 Ching
book of oracles to solve ethical or practical problems, helped people lead a happy life by offering good advice and simple common sense
Confucious
A Chinese philosopher of the Zhou Dynasty, developed a code of behavior based on old traditions, good behavior, and truth.
Filial Piety
In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
Darius
Persian ruler who brought order to the Persian Empire. He also built roads; established a postal system; and standardized weights, measures, and coinage.
Royal Road
A road for the government use built by the ancient Persian ruler Darius which helped unite the empire
Bureaucracy
A large, complex organization composed of appointed officials
Daoism
The philosophy of Laozi. It is the search for knowledge and understanding of nature.
Legalism
A Chinese philosophy that was devoted to strengthen and expand the state through increased agricultural work and military service.
Qin Dynasty
(221-207 BC) The first centralized dynasty of China that used Legalism as its base of belief.
Shi Huangdi
"First Emperor"
Autocracy
A system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual
Hyksos
Asiatic invaders who ruled Egypt from about 1640 to 1570 B.C.
New Kingdom
about 1570-1075 B.C. third period of glory for Egypt.
Hatshepsut
a woman ruler of the New Kingdom. The next male heir to the throne was too young. encourages trade instead of just waging war.
Thutmose III
Hatshepsut's stepson. more warlike than his stepmother, whom he murdered. pushed farther south into Nubia.
Nubia
region of Africa that straddled the upper Nile River
Ramses II
reigned from 1290 to 1224 B.C. great builder. pharaoh who made a treaty with the Hittites.
Kush
an ancient Nubian kingdom whose rulers controlled Egypt between 2000 and 1000 B.C.
pharaoh
"great house". Egyptian god king.
Amon-Re
Egypt's chief god
Pianki
Kushite king who overthrew Libyan dynasty, united Nile Valley from the delta to Napata. began Egypt's 25th dynasty.
Meroe
center of the Kush dynasty from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150. known for its manufacture of iron weapons and tools.
Assyria
Southwest Asian kingdom that controlled a large empire from about 850 to 612 B.C.
Sennacherib
Assyrian king that bragged he destroyed 89 cities and 820 villages
Nineveh
Assyria's capital
Ashurbanipal
owned a magnificent Assyrian library
Medes
destroyed Nineveh. allied with the Chaldeans.
Chaldeans
destroyed Nineveh. allied with the Medes.
Nebuchadnezzar
restored the city of Babylon
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
1. Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
2. Hanging Garden of Babylon, Iraq
3. Lighthouse of Alexandria, Egypt
4. Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, Turkey
5. Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt
6. Colossus of Rhodes, Rhodes
7. Statue of Zeus, Olympia, Greece
Zoroaster
Persian prophet who lived around 600 B.C. taught that the world is a battleground with a war between good and evil
Cyrus
Persian king. merciful military genius, kind toward conquered people. allowed Jews to return to their homeland.
(example of kindness: wouldn't allow army to loot and destroy, prayed at temples, invited Jews to rebuild the temple)
Seven Wonders of the Modern World
1. Christ the Redeemer, Rio de Janiero, Brazil
2. Taj Mahal, India
3. Machu Picchu, Peru
4. Colesseum, Rome, Italy
5. Great Wall of China
6. Chichen Itza, Mexico
7. Petra, Jordan
Cambyses
son of Cyrus (named after his father). caused chaos to spread in the Persian empire.
Darius
member of king's bodyguard prior to becoming king with the help of the Ten Thousand Immortals in 522 B.C.
satrap
local ruling governor in Persian provinces. "King's eyes and ears".
Royal Road
road system that allowed Darius to communicate with distant areas of his empire
Mauryan Empire
first empire in India; founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 321 B.C.
Chandragupta
fierce warrior; made servants taste his food first; to avoid murder he slept in a different bed every night; died in 298 BC
Asoka
Chandragupta's grandson; brought the Mauryan Empire to its greatest heights; studied Buddhism & built extensive roads for his subjects; died in 232 B.C.
Religious Toleration
the acceptance of people who held different religious beliefs
Tamil
A language of southern India; also name of the people
Gupta Empire
The second empire in India founded by Chandra Gupta; oversaw a great flowering of Indian civilization, especially Hindu culture
Patriarchal
Relating to a social system in which the father is head of the family
Matriarchal
Relating to a social system in which the mother is head of the family
main idea 1
Mauryas & Guptas established empires, but neither unified India permanently
Mahayana
massive religion of Buddhism; offers salvation to all & allowed popular worship
Theravada
Buddha's stricter, original spiritual teachings; believed Buddha isn't a god & he can't be worshiped (also called Hinayana)
stupa
mounded stone structures built over holy relics; similar to a temple
Brahma
creator of the world
Vishnu
preserver of the world
Shiva
destroyer of the world
Kalidasa
one of India's greatest writers
Silk Roads
vast network of of caravan routes; traders used them to bring silk from China to western Asia & then to Rome
main idea 2
Indian religions, culture, & science evolved & spread to other regions through trade
Han Dynasty
ruled China for more than 400 years; divided into 2 periods
centralized government
central authority controls the running of a state
civil service
government jobs that civilians obtained by taking examinations
monopoly
a group's exclusive control over the production & distribution of certain goods
assimilation
the process of making conquered peoples part of Chinese culture
main idea 3
Han Dynasty expanded China's borders & developed a system of government that lasted for centuries