two forces in the universe, according to Chinese Theory: Yin is the passive, negative force, and Yang the active, positive force
book of oracles to solve ethical or practical problems, helped people lead a happy life by offering good advice and simple common sense
A Chinese philosopher of the Zhou Dynasty, developed a code of behavior based on old traditions, good behavior, and truth.
In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
Persian ruler who brought order to the Persian Empire. He also built roads; established a postal system; and standardized weights, measures, and coinage.
A road for the government use built by the ancient Persian ruler Darius which helped unite the empire
A large, complex organization composed of appointed officials
The philosophy of Laozi. It is the search for knowledge and understanding of nature.
A Chinese philosophy that was devoted to strengthen and expand the state through increased agricultural work and military service.
(221-207 BC) The first centralized dynasty of China that used Legalism as its base of belief.
A system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual
Asiatic invaders who ruled Egypt from about 1640 to 1570 B.C.
about 1570-1075 B.C. third period of glory for Egypt.
a woman ruler of the New Kingdom. The next male heir to the throne was too young. encourages trade instead of just waging war.
Hatshepsut's stepson. more warlike than his stepmother, whom he murdered. pushed farther south into Nubia.
region of Africa that straddled the upper Nile River
reigned from 1290 to 1224 B.C. great builder. pharaoh who made a treaty with the Hittites.
an ancient Nubian kingdom whose rulers controlled Egypt between 2000 and 1000 B.C.
"great house". Egyptian god king.
Egypt's chief god
Kushite king who overthrew Libyan dynasty, united Nile Valley from the delta to Napata. began Egypt's 25th dynasty.
center of the Kush dynasty from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150. known for its manufacture of iron weapons and tools.
Southwest Asian kingdom that controlled a large empire from about 850 to 612 B.C.
Assyrian king that bragged he destroyed 89 cities and 820 villages
owned a magnificent Assyrian library
destroyed Nineveh. allied with the Chaldeans.
destroyed Nineveh. allied with the Medes.
restored the city of Babylon
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
1. Pyramids of Giza, Egypt 2. Hanging Garden of Babylon, Iraq 3. Lighthouse of Alexandria, Egypt 4. Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, Turkey 5. Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt 6. Colossus of Rhodes, Rhodes 7. Statue of Zeus, Olympia, Greece
Persian prophet who lived around 600 B.C. taught that the world is a battleground with a war between good and evil
Persian king. merciful military genius, kind toward conquered people. allowed Jews to return to their homeland. (example of kindness: wouldn't allow army to loot and destroy, prayed at temples, invited Jews to rebuild the temple)
Seven Wonders of the Modern World
1. Christ the Redeemer, Rio de Janiero, Brazil 2. Taj Mahal, India 3. Machu Picchu, Peru 4. Colesseum, Rome, Italy 5. Great Wall of China 6. Chichen Itza, Mexico 7. Petra, Jordan
son of Cyrus (named after his father). caused chaos to spread in the Persian empire.
member of king's bodyguard prior to becoming king with the help of the Ten Thousand Immortals in 522 B.C.
local ruling governor in Persian provinces. "King's eyes and ears".
road system that allowed Darius to communicate with distant areas of his empire
first empire in India; founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 321 B.C.
fierce warrior; made servants taste his food first; to avoid murder he slept in a different bed every night; died in 298 BC
Chandragupta's grandson; brought the Mauryan Empire to its greatest heights; studied Buddhism & built extensive roads for his subjects; died in 232 B.C.
the acceptance of people who held different religious beliefs
A language of southern India; also name of the people
The second empire in India founded by Chandra Gupta; oversaw a great flowering of Indian civilization, especially Hindu culture
Relating to a social system in which the father is head of the family
Relating to a social system in which the mother is head of the family
main idea 1
Mauryas & Guptas established empires, but neither unified India permanently
massive religion of Buddhism; offers salvation to all & allowed popular worship
Buddha's stricter, original spiritual teachings; believed Buddha isn't a god & he can't be worshiped (also called Hinayana)
mounded stone structures built over holy relics; similar to a temple
creator of the world
preserver of the world
destroyer of the world
one of India's greatest writers
vast network of of caravan routes; traders used them to bring silk from China to western Asia & then to Rome
main idea 2
Indian religions, culture, & science evolved & spread to other regions through trade
ruled China for more than 400 years; divided into 2 periods
central authority controls the running of a state
government jobs that civilians obtained by taking examinations
a group's exclusive control over the production & distribution of certain goods
the process of making conquered peoples part of Chinese culture
main idea 3
Han Dynasty expanded China's borders & developed a system of government that lasted for centuries