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Arts and Humanities
World History Exam
Terms in this set (59)
What mistakes were made by the leaders who made the Treaty of Versailles?
Treaty punished Germany by taking away some of their land, restrictions placed on its military operations, and placed the sole responsibility of the war on their shoulders.
Before the War:
The Long-Term Causes
- nationalism spurs competition among European nations
- Imperialism deepens national rivalries
- Militarism leads to large standing armies
- The alliance system divides Europe into two rival camps
The Immediate Causes
- The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914 prompts Austria to declare war on Serbia
- The alliance system requires nations to support their allies
After the War:
- A generation of Europeans is killed or wounded
- Dynasties fall in Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia
- New countries are created
- The League of Nations is established to help promote peace
After the War:
- Many nations feel bitter and betrayed by the peace settlements
- Forces that helped cause the war (nationalism, competition) remain
Powder Keg of Europe
refers to the Balkans in the early 20th cent. In this time period there were a number of overlapping claims to territories and spheres of influence between the major European powers such as Russia and Austria-Hungary and Imperial Germany, Great Britain, and Italy
Causes of U.S. involvement in WWI
Germany using U-boats to sink American ships launched the U.S. into action
Treaty of Versailles
the peace treaty signed by Germany and the Allied powers after World War I.
lost territory, had to pay for the war, were bitter, economy went into a depression due to the fact they had to pay for the war because they were held responsible
Unrestricted Submarine warfare
is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning,
radical Russian Marxist revolutionaries
a state in which the government controls every aspect of public and private life
Soviet State's Five-Year Plan
purpose was for economic development
Chines Communists, fleeing the Nationalists, took a 6,000 mile journey
a peaceful protest against the Salt Acts in 1930 in India in which Mohandas Gandhi led his followers on a 240-mile walk to the sea, where they made their own salt from evaporated seawater
India's limited self-rule
Great Britain granted this because Russia was organized into several self-governing republics
What halted the Chinese Civil War?
the Japanese launched an all-out invasion of China
How did technology change daily life after World War I?
developed new drugs and medical treatments that helped millions of people in the postwar years. The war's technological advances were put to use to improve transportation and communication after the war.
Advances in communication
radio was invented and allowed everyone to stay connected and aware of what was occurring around them
Advances in transportation
cars and airplanes were made that helped sped up travel to get shipments in faster and people places sooner
New forms of entertainment
radios and movies provided entertainment and distraction from people's day to day lives and also brought in income
What conditions and situations helped Fascists come to power in Germany and Italy in the 1920s and 1930s?
- past political influences in both regions
- growth of the Communist movement
- anger and resentment during postwar years
- I think that all of the new types of weapons is really what prohibited a World War III. I think that World War III was stopped because the leaders of many nations and the leaders of the UN knew what kind of destruction these weapons could cause. These leaders knew the damage that was done in Japan by the United States. Also, with the whole world were to be involved and dropping nuclear bombs, the world would be completely destructed. Also, many countries decided to solve their problems diplomatically in the United Nations. Through these negotiations, the United States and USSR were able to stop the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Governments of Germany, Italy, and Japan
Fascism and an emperor as the model and military as leaders
the alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan
led a revolt leading troops that favored a fascist-style government, beginning a civil war that would last three years. Hitler and Mussolini sent troops, tanks, and airplanes to help his forces (Nationalists). Republican collapsed and Franco became Spain's Fascist leader
German leader of the Nazi Party; went to jail and wrote Mein Kampf, "My Struggles." Believed in the "perfect race" and persecuted Jews. Came up with the final solution
vowed to rescue Italy by reviving its economy and rebuilding its armed forces; give strong leadership; founded the Fascist Party; played on fear of worker's revolt, won support of middle class and industrial leaders
Why Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany's troubles
needed a scapegoat and they weren't part of the "perfect race"; was a win win situation because it allowed Germany to unite to get rid of the Jews and found someone to blame the war on
Spanish Civil War
Francisco Franco, the leader of the fascists, was against the government. The war was pretty much the people against the government. With the help of Hitler, Francisco Franco won the fight.
Significance of the Sudeten territory
- Hitler demanded that the Sudetenland be given to Germany. The Czechs refused and asked France for help. British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, believed that he could preserve peace by giving in to Hitler's demand. Britain and France agreed that Hitler could take the Sudetenland. In exchange, Hitler pledged to respect Czechoslovakia's new borders.
Was the United States right not to join the fight against Germany when Great Britain and France did? Explain your answer. Battles: Fall of France, Dunkirk, Stalingrad, Midway, Pearl Harbor, Battle of Britain
The United States were right to join the fight against Germany when Great Britain and France did because these two countries were still vital to America. President Roosevelt knew that if the Allies were defeated by Germany and the Axis powers, the United States would suffer too because of their previous partnership in WWI and their remaining Alliance. Also, a German U-Boat sank an American ship that was transporting goods and artillery to the Allies. The ship also contained American civilians, so for these reasons it was very fair that America entered the war.
Location where the Japanese dropped a bomb on the United States
These were trials in which 22 different leaders were put on trial for war crimes and most of them were hanged
Hitler's program of systematically killing the entire Jewish people
Declaration of principles issued in August 1941 by British prime minister Winston Churchill and U.S. president Franklin Roosevelt, on which the Allied peace plan at the end of World War II was based.
Postwar government in Japan
Political power in Japan rested with the people
- Elected a two house parliament (Diet)
- All citizens over the age of 20 could vote including women
- Constitutional bill of rights protected basic freedoms
- Article 9 in their constitution stated that they could no longer make war (only fight if attacked)
- No longer has an emperor
- All enemies become allies
Invasion of Poland
The Germans invaded Poland in September 1939. The Polish armies were greatly outnumbered by Hitler's troops and they took Poland very quickly. The reason that Germany wanted to take these Polish cities was that in taking Poland, the Germans would reunite with another territory called Prussia
A camp or detention center where people were imprisoned without a trial
a nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission
President of the United States that made the decision to drop the two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
British Prime Minister, who declared that Great Britain would never give in and surrender from the war
Leader of the Soviet Union who ran a totalitarianism government, and stopped the Germans from invading the Soviet Union. Soviet dictator ____ signed a ten-year non- aggression pact with Hitler. After being excluded from the Munich Conference, ____ was not eager to join with the West. Also, Hitler had promised him territory. In a secret part of the pact, Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to divide Poland between them
What do you think has prevented a third world war given the fact that World War I and World War II were only 20 years apart?
- new types of weapons
- containment of regional wars
- the United Nations
I think that all of the new types of weapons is really what prohibited a World War III. I think that World War III was stopped because the leaders of many nations and the leaders of the UN knew what kind of destruction these weapons could cause. These leaders knew the damage that was done in Japan by the United States. Also, with the whole world were to be involved and dropping nuclear bombs, the world would be completely destructed. Also, many countries decided to solve their problems diplomatically in the United Nations. Through these negotiations, the United States and USSR were able to stop the Cuban Missile Crisis.
is the leader of the Communist revolution in China that eventually prevailed in the Civil War. He renamed China the People's Republic of China, and received aid from the Soviet Union in the form of supplies, money, and troops
became dominant leader after Stalin; started the policy called destalinization, or purging the country of Stalin's memory
John F. Kennedy
president of the U.S. avoided the Cuban Missile Crisis
during the Cold War, the boundary separating the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the mostly democratic nations of Western Europe.
announced by President Harry Truman in 1947, a U.S. policy of giving economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents.
a U.S. program of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after World War II
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization—a defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European nations, the United States, and Canada.
a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and seven Eastern European countries
militia units formed by young Chinese people in 1966 in response to Mao Zedong's call for a social and cultural revolution
in Communist China, a collective farm on which a great number of people work and live together
was first used by President Eisenhower. He used this term to describe the countries in Southeast Asia, comparing them to a stack of dominoes. This meant that once one fell to communism, its neighboring countries would soon follow.
First, Second, and Third World countries
First World-democracy; Second World- Communism; Third World- all the other ones
Cuban Missile Crisis
began when the United States began aggression toward Cuba's leader Fidel Castro. The United States was then involved in the Bay of Pigs, training Cuban exiles to invade. Then, Cuba turned to USSR for their help, and the USSR began moving in items to build nuclear missiles. The United States made a blockade so that the supplies could not be allowed through to Cuba.
a policy of threatening to go to war in response to any enemy aggression
time for healing, and the period after the brinkmanship
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