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Terms in this set (83)
What led to the increase of Spain's power under the reign of Philip II?
Gold and Silver from the Americas allowed Philip to build a huge army and navy.
What were the goals of Philip II as ruler of Spain?
Increase Spanish power and Catholicism, add land to Hapsburg rule
What was the purpose and the impact of the Spanish Armada?
Destroy England because they were Protestant, helping Dutch revolt, and protecting privateers
Marked the beginning of the end of the Spanish Empire b/c they began to lose control of the seas
What led to a Golden Age in Spanish culture?
Gold and Silver from the Americas allowed them to patronize the arts
What are the factors that contributed to the collapse of the Spanish empire?
Spanish Armada, Dutch Revolt, economic troubles, economic policies made their enemies rich, Philip II's successors not as good.
Why did Spain's economy collapse?
Inflation, kicked all Muslim and Jewish artisans out, taxed the business class so much they could not build business, took out too many foreign loans to fight wars, wars too costly, did not invest gold and silver in commerce/ farming
How did Spain help their enemies?
Spanish relied on the guild system and their tax policies did not allow business growth. This led to a shortage of manufactured goods. They had to buy these goods from England and France
Why did the Dutch revolt from Spanish rule?
Because Phillip tried to raise taxes and crush all the Protestants there and take away their self gov't.
How was the Dutch government different from other European nations?
Republic, and it was tolerant of other religions
What class had a great deal of power in the Netherlands? Why? How did this affect their economy?
Merchant class ( Middle class)
They could vote, therefore influenced government
They could vote, therefore influenced government
Government passed policies to help the economy grow
What was the goal of absolute monarchs?
Control every aspect of society
Why did absolute monarchs feel justified in exercising absolute power?
They felt that they were put there by God to rule
What factors led to the rise of absolutism in Europe?
Decline of Feudalism, rise of cities, growth of national kingdoms, rise of the middle class, establishment of colonies, decline of church authority
What caused the religious wars in France in the 1500's?
Differences b/w Huguenots and Catholics. Power struggle b/w Catholic and Huguenot noble families
What was the significance of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre?
This showed that order had completely broken down in France. The government had failed.
How did Henry IV become king? How did he bring peace to his country?
The last son of Henry II and Catherine de Medicis died w/o an heir. He had married their daughter.
He converted to Catholicism and then passed the Edict of Nantes
How did Henry IV strengthen the monarchy of France?
He brought back prosperity to the country by using his government to build bridges, roads, canals and drain swamps. As he did this, he was taking responsibility and power from local nobles.
What were the goals of Cardinal Richelieu?
To strengthen the monarchy of France and make France the strongest nation in Europe.
How did Cardinal Richelieu carry out these goals?
Forced Huguenot cities and nobles to tear down their fortifications so that they could not defy the king. Sent royal officials from the middle class to carry out justice and other functions of government throughout the provinces.
Entered into the 30 Years' War to weaken the Hapsburgs.
What was the impact of the Fronde on Louis XIV?
He was determined to reduce the power of the nobles and rule as an absolute monarch.
How did Louis XIV strengthen the French monarchy?
He never called the Estates General. He never asked nobles for advice. He kept nobles under his control at Versailles. He expanded the numbers and responsibilities of his royal officials (intendants) and had them correspond with him constantly.
What economic plan did Colbert enact?
Tried to make France self-sufficient (mercantilism)
Tax breaks and grants to build manufacturing and businesses at home.
Colonies for natural resources and markets for French goods.
Tariffs (taxes to jack prices up) on imports
How did Louis hurt his nation's economy?
He revoked the Edict of Nantes which caused about 200,000 Protestants to leave the country. They were artisans and business people. Wars. Court life.
What was the purpose of Versailles?
It was a palace used to impress French nobles and foreign diplomats with the wealth and power of Louis XIV.
How did Louis use his royal court to control the nobles?
He created an atmosphere in which French nobles had to live at Versailles and fight for petty privileges and honors at court rather than be at home scheming against Louis.
What was the purpose of French art under Louis XIV's reign?
To exhibit and promote the grandeur and power of the French monarchy
Why did Louis XIV fight in wars?
To expand French territory and power.
Why did Louis begin to lose wars?
Other nations began to team up (League of Augsburg) to maintain a balance of power in Europe and keep France from dominating.
What was the impact of Louis' reign on France?
Positive- France is strongest nation in Europe. Great military. French culture and art dominates Europe. Most diplomats learn to speak French like they do English today.
Negative- Louis' wars and Versailles nearly bankrupt the country. Taxes are incredibly high on peasants.
What was Louis XIV know as? What was Louis XIV's slogan?
The Sun King. "I am the state"
What problems did Elizabeth I leave for England when she died?
She didn't leave an heir. She left the country deep in debt from fighting many wars.
What problems did James I have with Parliament? Why?
James tried to act as an absolute monarch b/c that is what he had been in Scotland. He also had just converted from Catholicism, so he didn't want to purify the Anglican Church of Catholic rituals. This angered Puritans in Parliament.
What did Charles I do to anger Parliament and Protestants in Scotland?
He tried to rule as an absolute monarch. He dissolved Parliament when they disagreed. He spent money without permission. He ignored The Petition of Right after he signed it.
He persecuted Puritans b/c he sympathized with Catholics
He tried to force Presbyterians Scots to use a prayer book heavy on Catholic Ritual.
What were the long term causes and short term causes of the English Civil War?
Long term- Charles I was pro- Catholic and tried to rule as absolute monarch.
Short term- Charles tried to have members of Parliament arrested for defying him.
Who fought in the English Civil War? Why?
Roundheads- These were supporters of Puritan Parliamentary members. They felt that Parliament was supreme to the king. Usually middle class people.
Cavaliers- These were supporters of king. Usually the great lords. They felt that the king was supreme to Parliament and the king allowed them many privileges in his rule. They didn't want middle class to get upper hand.
What were the results of the English Civil War?
Parliament wins and they execute the king, abolish the monarchy and the House of Lords, and set up a Commonwealth.
No absolute monarch in England.
Describe life in England under Cromwell's rule?
Cromwell became a dictator when the Irish rebelled. He forced the English people to live by a strict Puritan religious/ moral code.
Why did the English ask for Charles II to come and be king?
When Cromwell died they were sick of the Puritan/ military rule.
What did Charles II have to guarantee when he became king?
He had to guarantee habeas corpus.
How did James II anger Parliament?
He was overtly Catholic, appointed Catholics to offices (against English law), and he had a son who was being raised as Catholic.
What were the causes and effects of the Glorious Revolution?
Causes- James II breaking English law, acting as Catholic.
Results- He is replaced with Protestant William and Mary.
Significance- English Bill of Rights is signed. England would replace government if government broke the law.
What did William and Mary have to sign after the Glorious Revolution?
English Bill of Rights
What are the key ideas of the English Bill of Rights?
Monarchy in England is limited by a constitution or Parliament. Parliament is supreme to monarch. Parliament has "Power of Purse"- control of taxes and money. No suspending of Parliament or its laws. Freedom of speech guaranteed in Parliament. No penalty for citizens writing a petition of grievances.
Why did a cabinet system develop?
So that the king could be advised by leaders of Parliament in order to get things passed. As time went by, the king loses more power to Parliament. Now the king has no power.
What were the long term and short term causes of the 30 Years' War?
Long term- Distrust and conflict b/w Protestants and Catholics, power vacuum b/c of weakness of HRE. Short term- Protestants revolt in Bohemia when Ferdinand II inherits it and closes Protestant churches. Defenestration of Prague.
Describe the course of the 30 Years War.
First 12 years were Hapsburg victories b/c they had a 120,000 man army. In the last 18 years, Sweden and France turned tide against Hapsburgs.
What was the impact of the 30 Years' War on Germany?
1/5- 1/3 of population killed, economy destroyed, divided into 360 kingdoms for another 200 years.
Who were the winners and losers of the 30 Years War? Why?
Winners- France, they gain territory and become dominant monarchy in Europe. Losers- Hapsburg empires of HRE and Spain, they lose territory and influence over Protestants.
What was the significance of the Peace of Westphalia?
Abandoned idea of Catholic empire in Europe (idea of HRE is give up). Introduced new way of peace negotiations (each combatant sends a representative to negotiate). Set up the modern state system of Europe (all the modern powers of Europe were there).
Which two families emerged to take power in central Europe after the 30 Years War?
Hapsburgs (Austria) and Hohenzollerns (Prussia)
What did the Hapsburgs do after losing so much in the 30 Years war?
Focused on re- conquering lands around Austria (Hungary and Bohemia)
Why was the Hapsburg empire so hard to govern?
Too many ethnic groups and too mountainous
What lands did the Hapsburgs control?
Austria, Hungary, Bohemia (Czech Rep), parts Italy and Poland
What was the significance of Maria Theresa?
First woman monarch in Central Europe, solidified Hapsburg power (although lost War of Austrian Succession), passed several reforms in her empire to ease burdens on peasants.
Where is Prussia? Who led them? Religion?
Northern Germany, Hohenzollerns, Protestant
List, in order, the leaders of the Hohenzollern family mentioned in the book. Explain what each did.
Frederick William the Great Elector- developed standing army to protect lands, permanent taxes
Frederick William I- first to take title of king, turned Prussia into militarized state by allowing Junkers to control military
Frederick II (the Great)- reformed laws, established religious tolerance, led Prussia into wars of conquest.
How did the Hohenzollerns become absolute monarchs? How did they control the nobles?
Built a standing army, took power from nobles, permanent taxes. Took their power away, but gave them exclusive right to be officers in military.
What were the causes and results of the War of Austrian Succession?
Causes- Frederick II wanted to test Maria Theresa's ability to lead by conquering Silesia
Results- Prussia takes Silesia, but Maria Theresa establishes herself as capable leader by defending rest of empire.
What were the causes and results of the Seven Years' War?
Causes- Long term- alliance system develops; Short term- Prussia attacks Saxony (ally of Austria),.
Results- No territorial changes in Europe, Britain gains territory in NA and India, great powers emerge (France, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Britain)
What was the goal of both Austria and Prussia after the 30 Years War?
As major German kingdoms, each wanted to take control of all the German kingdoms and unite into 1 empire.
What were the differences b/w Austria and Prussia?
Austria is in the south, is multi- ethnic, and is Catholic
Prussia is in the north, is only German, and is Protestant.
Describe Ivan IV's "good period"?
Great victories, added lands, law codes, ruled justly
Describe Ivan IV's "bad period"?
Secret police repressed nobles, killed his own son
What caused this "bad period"? How might have Ivan's experiences as a youth influenced his actions during the "bad period"?
The death of his wife
Nobles had tried to take his power when he was a youth
What caused the "Time of Troubles"? What brought about the end of these times?
Ivan's surviving son was incompetent and died without an heir.
Boyars elected Michael Romanov as czar
How was Russia different from Western Europe?
Serfdom was still around. Russian Orthodox rather than Catholic or Protestant. No Renaissance or Age of Discovery.
What factors limited Russia's contact with Western Europe?
Mongol rule, only port was iced over, looked to Constantinople for leadership, Russian Orthodox people refused to mix with Catholics
What aspects of Western Europe interested Peter the Great?
Modern technology, ships, and military
What did Peter think was essential for Russia's future? Why?
Warm water port
Had to be able to trade with the West
Why did Peter want to westernize Russia?
To make it stronger so that they could compete with Europe
Why would the boyars be resistant to westernization?
They held all the power in the old Russian way of life.
What did Peter have to do in order to make the Russian boyars westernize?
Become an absolute monarch
List 3 ways that Peter became an absolute monarch?
Changed Church to be under his control. Created a strong army. Promoted lower class nobles and gave them power in exchange for loyalty.
List 5 ways in which Peter westernized Russia.
Potatoes. Newspaper. Raised women's status. Changed dress style. Opened school of navigation and arts and sciences. Westernized military.
What did Peter see as the key to Russian progress? What policies did he make to bring this about?
Built universities, allowed people to leave and study abroad.
Why did Peter want to build St. Petersburg?
Make it easier to trade with west
Who did Peter fight to get the land on which St. Petersburg was built?
Describe the construction of St. Petersburg?
Built on swamp, forced serfs to build it, up to a 100,000 serfs died, forced boyars to live there.
What territorial expansions did Russia make under Peter and Catherine?
Peter- expanded into Siberia, took area around St Petersburg, Bering Strait, into Alaska.
Catherine- warm water port on Black Sea. Partitioned Poland.
How did Catherine come to power?
Married future Russian czar. Nobles plotted to kill czar.
What positive reforms did Catherine make?
Reorganized provincial govt, education programs, law codes, western culture
What were some negatives from Catherine's reign?
Extended serfdom and gave nobles too many privileges
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