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Ch 4 Advance Honors
Terms in this set (54)
People use to believe in spontaneous generation. What is spontaneous generation?
the supposed production of living organisms from nonliving matter
Define cell theory
All living things are composed of cells= basic unit of structure and function; cells are derived from existing cells
We are made up of 25 trillion microscopic cells. Why are the cells so small?
They are small because of diffusion
Is the rate of diffusion fast or slow? and where does it occur?
slow; occurs across the cell membrane
what is the surface area to volume ratio? Why can't it go any lower?
6:1, and it can't go any lower because it would be to big of a surface are for diffusion.
How do you find surface area?
base X height
How do you find volume?
base X height X width
The smaller the cell the bigger the ____ to_____ ratio. Surface area increases by ____
Volume area increases by _____
surface are to volume
Identify the nucleus, mitochondria, vacuole, cytoplasm, ribosomes, cell membrane, rough ER, smooth ER, lysosomes, nucleolus, and golgi body
Imagine a glucose molecule entering the cell membrane. Would that molecule be able to reach the mitochondria faster if the cell has a smaller volume or a larger volume?
smaller volume because it would have less distance to travel
As the mitochondria metabolize the glucose, they produce a carbon dioxide waste. Would the CO2 molecules be able to leave the cell faster if the cell had a smaller or larger volume?
smaller volume because it would have less distance to travel
Among unicellular eukaryotes, cell size differ greatly. Amoeba and Paramecium organisms are animal-like protists that are heterotrophic, have no cell wall, and are several times larger than most human cells. What might be some reasons why these unicellular organisms have larger cells than cells with similar traits (heterotrophic, lacking cell walls) that are found in multicellular organisms?
They are bigger or survival reasons. The unicellular organism has to do all the jobs/ functions.
When a shape increases, which increases at a faster rate, surface area or volume?
What function does the nucleus perform?
contains and protects genetic material (DNA)
What function does the DNA/chromosomes perform?
information for making proteins
What function does the ribosomes perform?
What function does the Endoplasmic Reticulum perform?
transports and finishes proteins and other biological molecules
What function does the lysosomes perform?
manufacture, distribution, breaks down molecules/ get rid of waste
What function does the mitochondria perform?
What function does the golgi apparatus perform?
manufacture, distribution, breakdowns molecules
What function does the cytoplasm perform?
space for work to be done
What function does the vesicles perform?
cellular package containing products such as protein
What function does the vacuole perform?
fluid-filled organelle stores water, enzymes, and waste products. Size of this organelle can change.
What function does the pores/ gated channels perform?
points of entry and exit for materials
What function does the cell membrane perform?
to protect the cell from its surroundings, it controls the movement of substances in and out of cells and organelles, and it gives support.
Where is DNA located?
Which organelle generates energy to power cellular activities?
After the ribosomes assemble the proteins, which organelle would they go next?
Which organelle might cellular products be placed?
What is the function for chloroplast?
some store food or pigments; some convert light energy to chemical energy in the form of organic compounds.
Why do plants need chloroplasts?
Which organelle does cellular respiration occur?
Plants ave both mitochondria and chloroplasts; they can produce their own glucose to fuel cellular respiration. Animal cells, on the other hand, have only mitochondria. If an animal eats only meat what would be its source of glucose?
their tissues would be broken down to provide glucose
study of cells
What is cell fractionation?
The process where cells are broken up and the different organelles are separated for study
What do all cells have in common?
cell membrane, organelle, cytoplasm (cytotsol+ organelles) chromosomes, and ribosomes
Internal membrane in eukaryotes are mainly made up of what?
How does the cell divides itself?
How does the membrane participate?
Are proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer? Can phospholipids and proteins vary depending on membrane function?
Internal membrane in eukaryotes are mainly made up of phospholipids and proteins.
Divide cell into compartments
Participate in metabolism
Proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer Phospholipids and proteins vary depending on membrane function
Plasma membrane...what type of bilayer does it have?
what is selective permeable
allow certain types of molecules to pass through but not others
What is the nuclear membrane also known as?
1-can it contain genes in eukaryotes?
2-what is the nucleus surrounded by?
3-What are nuclear pores lined by and what does it regulate?
4- What is the nuclear side of envelope lined by and how does it help the nucleus?
3. lined by proteins and regulates passage of molecules in and out
4 nuclear side of envelope lined by network of protein filaments which help maintain shape
Chromatin fibers are DNA + histone proteins
-chromatin wraps into _____ during cell division
-_____is the site of ribosome (rRNA) production
what makes up ribosomes? where are the ribosomes?
proteins and rRNA
they are suspended in the cytoplasm and located on the ER
What does the ER continue? what are the tubes filled of?
the nuclear membrane
they are filled of fluid filled spaces
What is the endomembrane system?
it directly continuous or connect via transfer of membrane sacs (vesicles)
this system includes nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and plasma membrane
1. what is attached to the ER and what does it make?
2. what does the ER do to the product?
3. what happens after it's finish with that product?
1. ribosomes make proteins
2. the ER folds the proteins into the 3D shape
3. the ER puts the proteins into transport vesicles and sent it to the Golgi apparatus
1.what does it lack?
2.what does it contain?
3. what does it synthesize?
4. If it is located in the liver what does it break down?
5. If it is in the muscles what does it store, and why does it store it?
2. contains enzymes for many different metabolic processes
3. synthesize oils, steroids,and phospholipid
4. breaks down toxins
5. store Ca ions to regulate muscle contractions
1. what does it do?
2. What is the receiving side and shipping side called?
3. does it make anything?
1. center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping
2. cis= receiving; trans= shipping 3.no
1. where is it found?
2.what is it?
3. enzymes made by ribosomes on rough ER/ modified by _____
4. its an example of ________________
5. if a lysosome ruptures, enzymes not very active in ______ (prevents accidental "self digestion)(neutral pH
6. massive rupture of many lysosomes can destroyed by ____ _________
1. animal cell
2. membrane-bound sac of hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes
3. enzymes made by ribosomes on rough ER/ modified by Golgi
4. its an example of compartmentalization
5. if a lysosome ruptures, enzymes not very active in cytoplasm (prevents accidental "self digestion)(neutral pH
6. massive rupture of many lysosomes can destroy be "self digestion"
What are lysosomes used for/ how do they help?
a) digestion of food in unicellular organisms
b) recycling of cell's organelles and macromolecules
c) programmed cell death (apoptosis)
d) embryonic development
e) cells that are damaged get signal to self destruct
1 . what is it?
2. what type of the cell is it found in?
3. what surrounds it?
4. stock pile of ____ or _____
5. holds what?
6. does the surface area/ volume ratio increases?
1. vesicles and vacuoles= membrane-bound sacs with varied functions
3. membrane surrounds it
4. proteins or inorganic ions
1. surround by a ____ _____
2. built from ____ and ______ in cytoplasm
3. detoxify _____ and _____ from ____
4. make a poisonous intermediate product= _____ ______
1. surround by a single membrane
2. built from proteins and lipids in cytoplasm
3. detoxify alcohol and other harmful substances in liver
4. make a poisonous intermediate product= hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)
An ovarian cell produces estrogen. What path does the estrogen follow inside the cell? (order is important)
follows the endomembraneous network
the path is nucleolus, smooth ER, Golgi, and cell membrane
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