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Terms in this set (12)
Raphael's School of Athens and the Disputation of the Last Sacrament
• This is Raphael's School of Athens and the Disputation of the Last Sacrament, commissioned by Pope Julius II.
• Relevant during the early 1500s, these two paintings faced each other in a Vatican, having direct correspondence with each other.
• In the school of Athens, philosophers were depicted as renaissance thinkers and ancient Athenians/fathers. In the Disputation of the Last Sacrament, Raphael creates a scene of the fathers of the saints.
• Although there is disputation between the two paintings, the significance of these works lies in the idea of using ancient knowledge to shift towards spiritual thinkers. There is an emphasis on not only the perfectibility of man, but also his relationship with history.
Holbein's portrait of Thomas More and Thomas Cromwell
• This is Holbein's portrait of Thomas More and Thomas Cromwell, painted under Henry VIII (1532-34).
• No longer just a distinction between the idealized man and realism, Northern Renaissance art focused on the distinction between individuals
• You can clearly distinguish the two individuals, and can tell that Holbein carried a greater liking towards More.
• A humanist scholar, More opposed the protestant reformation and critiqued the harsh conditions of England and his distaste towards capitalism. He argued that the government was a conspiracy of the rich. On the other hand, Cromwell believed in radical reform, springing from his strong religious faith.
• Relevant from the 1200s to the late 1400s, Prester John was a mythical figure.
• He was able to change places to where he's supposed to be and time periods over a span of centuries.
• The story of Prester John lived on: he was a rich, Christian king, and resided in the East (on the Hereford map). As he was believed to take back Jerusalem from the Muslims, Prester John was relevant during the victory against Muslims, which became a huge motivator to fund Columbus's voyage, and ultimately contributed to Portugal's role in coming about the crusades and fulfilling the prophecy.
• Culminating in 1492, the Reconquista was a series of campaigns to recapture territory from the Muslims.
• We looked at the Reconquista in context of the crusades, which focused on the fulfillment of a prophecy: The Holy land controlled by Christians, God punishes sins with signs (ie. Famine, floods, etc.) and all gentiles must conform to Christianity. Ultimately, the idea behind these conquests was to fulfill the prophecy.
• This is where the debate between God, Gold, and Glory becomes relevant.
• A Renaissance humanist, Erasmus attacked the Catholic church and papal authority for its lack of spirituality and argued to return to the simplicity of Jesus's message.
• Although he was a controversial figure, his translation of the New Testament brought on a theological revolution, and his views on the reformation tempered its more radical elements. However, he never questioned the authority of the pope, but rather wanted to fix the system from the inside.
• One of his significant contributions during the Renaissance was the Praise of Folly, where he attacked theologians for their arrogance, preferring their own discourses to the scriptures and limiting contact with biblical literature. The Praise of Folly played a huge role during the protestant reformation.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
• In 1572, Bartholomew's Day Massacre targeted Huguenots (French Protestants) during the French religious wars.
• During this period, the King of France was Catholic, where only 10% of the state converted to Protestantism. Started at the noble wedding. Once Protestant nobility entered Paris, a 100% Catholic city, the King of France authorized the massacre, which spread into provinces and lasted for months
• The extent of religious intolerance and the brutality of these Massacres were so bad that ordinary Catholic started saving ordinary Protestants, forming pacts of friendship that formed the edict of Nantes and set the stage for Religious Tolerance.
Edict of Nantes
• Signed in 1598 by King Henry IV, the Edict of Nantes granted the French Protestants religious right in the nation, despite still being a Catholic state. Some of these included full civil rights and the right to public worship.
• The edict was accompanied by the Kings conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism which brought an end to the Religious wars of 1562.
• This was immensely significant: this was one of the first steps towards religious tolerance in Europe after centuries of tension and division.
• Thomas Aquinas was an immensely important theologian who was in conversation with Aristotle during the late medieval period.
• In efforts to reconcile theology with Aristotle, Aquinas needed catholic theology to grapple with all known knowledge.
• In his Summa Theologia, Aquinas proved god's existence using logic, using five main proofs that strengthen each other.
• This plays a role in the overall narrative by solidifying the idea that God lies in the center of the universe and Christianity as a unifying element during the 14th century.
Council of Trent
• An embodiment of the counter-reformation during the mid 1500s, Pope Paul III called for the council of Trent, which addressed the question of church reform and developed strategies to meet the Protestant threat.
• In hopes to find reconciliation of the catholic church, the council of Trent rejected the English model of Protestantism, defended catholic theology and papal authority, and called for the reformation of catholic bishops and the establishment of seminaries.
• The Council of Trent successfully strengthened the authority of the papacy and stopped the momentum of the Protestant Reformations, setting the stage for religious warfare throughout Europe.
• Anabaptists arose out of the Protestant Reformation, gaining popularity during the 1500s.
o adult baptism
o Current belief system was that you must baptize your children at birth; hence, many people believed that Anabaptists were condemning children to hell
• Apoloticpitcal beliefs government had no matter with religion; separation of state and religion
• During the 1340s, the Black death wiped up one-thirds to two thirds of the European population, majority of which were peasants.
• As a consequence of the resurgence of trade, the Black Death entered Europe as the disease was carried along the silk road. However, people made sense of the Black Death through the concept of divine punishment.
• Consequently, it had a very profound impact on social structure (mismatch between wealth and value system) and ended feudalism, arguably marking the beginning of the Renaissance period by undermining the worldview and creating a new civilization.
• Relevant during the late 1400s, The Malleus Maleficarum was known as the best known treatise on witchcraft during the European witch hunts.
• Written by Heinrich Kramer, Malleus Maleficarum targeted women and emphasized their threat on Christendom.
• In a successful attempt to direct attention away from his own crime, Kramer discusses how the power of the sacrament was threatened by heresy associated with Diabolical collusions: For instance, marriage was affected by spells/curses by human vehicles of the devil (AKA witches, who were established as women)
• This is significant because it became a justification for targeting women during the "second phase" of the witch hunts, which occurred during the 15th century.
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