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social psych final
Terms in this set (439)
motivated by the desire to improve anothers welfare
arousal: cost-reward model
the proposition that people react to emergency situations by acting in the most cost-effective way to reduce the arousal of shock and alarm
reluctance to help for fear of making a bad impression on observers
presence of others inhibits helping
diffusion of responsibility
belief that others will or should take responsibility for providing assistance to a person in need
motivated by the desire to increase ones own welfare
understanding or vicariously experiencing another individuals perspective and feeling sympathy and compassion for that individual
the proposition that empathic concern for a person in need produces an altruistic motive for helping
good mood effect
a good mood increases helping behavior
preferential helping of genetic relatives which results in the greater likelihood that genes held in common will survive
negative state relief model
proposition that people help others in order to counteract their own feelings of sadness
norm of social responsibility
a moral standard emphasizing that people should help those who need assistance
state in which a group mistakenly think that their own individual thoughts feelings or behaviors are different from those of the others in the group
actions intended to benefit others
general rule of conduct reflecting standards of social approval and disapproval
threat to self esteem model
theory that reactions to receiving assistance depend on whether help is perceived as supportive or threatening
subfield of psychology that deals with the role of genetic factors in behavior
cross cultural research
research designed to compare and contrast people of different cultures
A system of enduring meanings, beliefs, values, assumptions, institutions, and practices shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
A subfield of psychology that uses the principles of evolution to understand human social behavior.
An emphasis on how both an individual's personality and environmental characteristics influence behavior.
Research designed to examine racial and ethnic groups within cultures.
The study of how people perceive, remember, and interpret information about themselves and others.
The study of the relationship between neural and social processes.
The scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in a social context.
Which of the following statements best characterizes the field of social psychology?
It aims to establish general principles for understanding social behavior.
The interactionist perspective combines ________ and ________.
psychology of personality; social psychology
In the 1960s and 1970s, the field of social psychology was split in two as psychologists disagreed about the:
validity, ethicalness, and relevance of laboratory experiments
What is one thing that social psychology and psychology of personality have in common?
Both are concerned with the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals
A psychologist is investigating the extent to which risk-taking behavior is an inherited trait. This study would most likely come under the ________ subfield of psychology
Evolutionary psychology's theories may be used to explain
what men and women look for in their ideal mate.
In contrast to North American social psychologists, European social psychologists are more likely to emphasize the study of:
the meaning and impact of group membership
The first research article in social psychology detailed a study of:
the effect that the presence of others has on one's performance.
Sherif's research on conformity was crucial to the development of social psychology because:
it demonstrated that complex social variables can be studied in a rigorous scientific manner.
In an experiment conducted by Fein, college students watched three different versions of a presidential debate between Ronald Reagan and Walter Mondale. In which version did students react least favorably toward Reagan, and why?
Those who heard the debate and the jokes, but not the audience reactions, reacted least favorably because they were influenced by what seemed like inept jokes.
Milgram's landmark study investigated:
A psychologist is studying the effects that feeling sad has on a person's performance. This study might be characterized as:
a social cognition study.
Social psychology focuses on ________, while sociology focuses on ________.
the study of individuals; the study of groups
From a cultural perspective, social psychology can be described as:
mostly North American.
Recent research on aggression suggests that:
female aggression is different from male aggression.
Jenna considers herself to be a student of human nature. Her main tool for investigating behavior is common sense. What is the difference between her and a social psychologist?
Only the social psychologist would systematically test theories.
Which psychologist was responsible for the interactionist perspective?
Alan is taking two psychology courses this term. One is social psychology; the other is clinical psychology. At one point, Alan was studying the same topic in both classes. That topic might have been:
the effect of major depression on interpersonal behavior.
Social psychology came into its own as an established field of psychology:
in 1924, when Allport published his social psychology textbook.
In social psychology, others must be physically present to influence our behavior (T/F)
Lewin stated that social psychological theories should be applied to practical issues (T/F)
Modern-day social psychological research is conducted under more rigorous ethical standards than in earlier periods(T/F)
Laboratory experiments offer greater control than field experiments(T/F)
Learning about research methods in social psychology has been shown to facilitate understanding of social psychology findings, but does not affect thinking in domains outside of social psychology.(T/F)
Research whose goals are to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events and to find solutions to practical problems.
Research whose goal is to increase the understanding of human behavior, often by testing hypotheses based on a theory.
bogus pipeline technique
A procedure in which research participants are (falsely) led to believe that their responses will be verified by an infallible lie-detector
Accomplice (person who helps someone commit a crime) of an experimenter who, in dealing with the real participants in an experiment, acts as if he or she is also a participant.
The extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variables they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variables they were designed to manipulate.
A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables.
Research designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher.
A disclosure, made to participants after research procedures are completed, in which the researcher explains the purpose of the research, attempts to resolve any negative feelings, and emphasizes the scientific contribution made by the participants' involvement.
In the context of research, a method that provides false information to participants.
In an experiment, a factor that experimenters measure to see if it is affected by the independent variable.
A form of research that can demonstrate causal relationships because (1) the experimenter has control over the events that occur and (2) participants are randomly assigned to conditions.
The degree to which experimental procedures are involving to participants and lead them to behave naturally and spontaneously.
experimenter expectancy effects
The effects produced when an experimenter's expectations about the results of an experiment affect his or her behavior toward a participant and thereby influence the participant's responses.
The degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations.
A testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur.
In an experiment, a factor that experimenters manipulate to see if it affects the dependent variable.
An individual's deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research, based on the researcher's description of what will be required during such participation.
The degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables in an experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables.
The degree to which different observers agree on their observations.
A set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects.
The degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world.
The specific procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual variable
A method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions.
A method of selecting participants for a study so that everyone in a population has an equal chance of being in the study.
A variable that characterizes pre-existing differences among the participants in a study.
An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena.
Why was the Literary Digest's survey of the 1936 presidential campaign so inaccurate?
The participants were not randomly selected.
Bogus pipeline is a technique used in self-reports to elicit:
more accurate information
A testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur is called:
The two things that every ________ study must have are control and random assignment.
A researcher finds that there is a negative correlation between height and extroversion. That means that:
short people are more likely to be extroverted than tall people.
Experimental control is established by manipulating all the:
An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena is called:
A researcher reports that the findings of her study are statistically significant at the .05 level. What does that mean?
there is a 95% chance the findings are true
The most serious drawback to the correlation method is that it does not imply:
To select a random sample, a researcher should:
make sure that every member of the population as an equal chance of being chosen.
The extent to which manipulations in an experiment measure what they are supposed to be measuring is called:
A researcher wants to compare the performance of thirty males and thirty females on spatial and verbal tasks. A way for the researcher to achieve random assignment would be:
to randomly assign fifteen males to the verbal task and fifteen males to the spatial task. Then, do the same for the females.
Meta-analysis is a way to:
sum up statistically all the studies done on a topic.
Which of the following qualifies as an experiment?
a. A researcher examines whether people are more likely to honk sooner at a confederate in a fancy car who does not move when a light changes or at a confederate in a jalopy.
b. A graduate student surveys people at a mall about their exercise habits.
c. Using a hidden camera, Dr. Hernandez notes whether men still open and hold doors for women.
d. A researcher searches old town records to see if there is a relationship between high school GPA's and subsequent alumni donations.
a. A researcher examines whether people are more likely to honk sooner at a confederate in a fancy car who does not move when a light changes or at a confederate in a jalopy.
What can be concluded from a correlational study that found a high positive correlation between childhood obesity and hours of daily television viewing?
The more TV that children watch, the more likely it is that they're obese.
In which of the following research situations would a correlational study be preferable to an experimental study?
A study that is looking for the causes of aggressive behavior in children.
b. A study that is done in the laboratory.
c. A study that requires manipulation of one or more variables.
d. A study investigating incidence of child abuse among alcoholic mothers.
A study investigating incidence of child abuse among alcoholic mothers.
A study compared the anxiety levels of two groups of women after seeing a pair of snakes. The women were randomly assigned to two groups. One group had seen a movie about the dangers of snakebites; the other had not. The independent variables in this study are:
whether the women had seen the movie.
To understand correlation, we must understand that as the absolute value of the correlation rises there is:
a stronger relationship between the variables.
The extent to which the experimental setting and procedures are real and involving to the participant, regardless of whether they resemble real life, is called:
A researcher is interested in surveying the female shoppers in a mall in order to see if women tend to spend more money at certain times of the day. What type of study is this?
Through the understanding of social psychological research, you can understand everyday life.
The desire to look good can influence self report inventories.(T/F)
Correlational research has many advantages.(T/F)
Random assignment is another term for random sampling.(T/F)
It is unethical to use deception with research participants.
The process of predicting how one would feel in response to future.
bask in reflected glory (BIRG)
To increase self-esteem by associating with others who are successful.
An Eastern system of thought that accepts the coexistence of contradictory characteristics within a single person.
downward social comparison
The defensive tendency to compare ourselves with others who are worse off than we are.
facial feedback hypothesis
The hypothesis that changes in facial expression can lead to corresponding changes in emotion.
A nonconscious form of self-enhancement.
The tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors.
A personality characteristic of individuals who are introspective, often attending to their own inner states.
A personality characteristic of individuals who focus on themselves as social objects, as seen by others.
The theory that self-focused attention leads people to notice self-discrepancies, thereby motivating either an escape from self-awareness or a change in behavior.
The sum total of an individual's beliefs about his or her own personal attributes.
An affective component of the self, consisting of a person's positive and negative self-evaluations.
Behaviors designed to sabotage one's own performance in order to provide a subsequent excuse for failure.
The tendency to change behavior in response to the self-presentation concerns of the situation.
The theory that when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain self-insight by observing their own behavior.
Strategies people use to shape what others think of them.
A belief people hold about themselves that guides the processing of self-relevant information.
social comparison theory
The theory that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others.
Terror Management Theory
The theory that humans cope with the fear of their own death by constructing worldviews that help to preserve their self-esteem.
two-factor theory of emotion
The theory that the experience of emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal.
Individuals who are depressed and low in self-esteem are more likely to:
have a realistic view of themselves.
What does the facial feedback hypothesis state?
Changes in facial expression can trigger changes in emotional experience.
From studies on the overjustification effect, what did researchers conclude about the use of rewards?
Only rewards that provide positive feedback should be given.
Introspection appears to be most useful for making decisions concerning:
stock market investments.
Those who are high in self-monitoring are also more likely to:
modify their behavior from one situation to the next.
Benjamin looked in the mirror. There was a red smudge on his cheek where Aunt Tanya had kissed him. He tried to wipe it off. From his actions, one can surmise that Benjamin is at least ________ old.
Four of Mrs. Kaufman's seventh-grade students failed the history test, and she asked each of them to explain what happened. Which of their excuses implies self-handicapping behavior?
"I left my eyeglasses in my desk in school on Friday, so I couldn't study."
According to the overjustification effect, when people are paid for doing something they already enjoy doing, they will:
no longer do the activity unless they are paid.
Which of the following statements concerning self-esteem is FALSE?
a. People with low self-esteem are more likely to blame themselves when they fail.
b. People differ in the extent to which their self-esteem is stable or unstable.
c. African Americans of all ages tend to score higher on measures of self-esteem than European Americans.
d. Individuals from collectivist cultures tend to score higher on self-report measures of self-esteem than individuals from individualistic cultures.
Individuals from collectivist cultures tend to score higher on self-report measures of self-esteem than individuals from individualistic cultures.
Schachter (1959) found that when research participants were scared into believing that they were about to receive painful electric shocks as part of an experiment, they chose to wait:
in the company of others who shared their predicament.
After a disagreement with her boyfriend, Tamara stormed out, letting the door slam behind her. According to self-perception theory, she will likely say to herself:
"I didn't realize it, but I must be really angry with him."
In a study done by Csikszentmihalyi and Figurski, when people happened to think about themselves, they reported feeling:
Which of the following is an example of self-verification?
After the substitute singled him out for misbehaving, Zack made sure to behave in his usual exemplary manner for the rest of the day.
Self-perception theory operates only when people are:
shaky in their convictions.
In a study of Halloween trick-or-treaters, Beaman found that children were more likely to take only one piece of candy, as they were told, when a ________ was placed behind the candy bowl.
When eleven-year-old Taniqua, who is the only girl on the school's track team, is asked to describe herself, she is likely to mention:
Unlike North Americans, people in collectivist societies are more likely to:
derive satisfaction from the status of their groups.
Which of the following refers to a flashbulb memory?
Ming will always remember the day he heard about the Challenger explosion.
The ________ states that we define ourselves by using others as a standard.
social comparison theory
When a group of English-speaking students from Hong Kong was given the "Who Am I?" test in two languages, what was the result?
In Chinese, they named their group affiliations; in English, they named their personal traits.
On average, women tend to have higher self-esteem than men.
Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely to respond to criticism and rejection with anger and violence.(T/F)
People tend to underestimate the duration of their emotional reactions.(T/F)
People rate the letters of their own name more positively than other letters of the alphabet.(T/F)
Exercising self-control in one situation makes it easier to do so again in a subsequent situation, as long as the second situation immediately follows the first.(T/F)
A group of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior.
The tendency to estimate the likelihood that an event will occur by how easily instances of it come to mind.
The finding that people are relatively insensitive to consensus information presented in the form of numerical base rates.
belief in a just world
The belief that individuals get what they deserve in life, an orientation that leads people to disparage victims.
The tendency to maintain beliefs even after they have been discredited.
Traits that exert a powerful influence on overall impressions.
The tendency to seek, interpret, and create information that verifies existing beliefs.
The tendency to imagine alternative events or outcomes that might have occurred but did not.
A principle of attribution theory that holds that people attribute behavior to factors that are present when a behavior occurs and are absent when it does not.
The tendency for people to overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions, attributes, and behaviors.
fundamental attribution error
The tendency to focus on the role of personal causes and underestimate the impact of situations on other people's behavior.
implicit personality theory
A network of assumptions people make about the relationships among traits and behaviors.
The process of integrating information about a person to form a coherent impression.
information integration theory
The theory that impressions are based on (1) perceiver dispositions; and (2) a weighted average of a target person's traits.
The process by which people attribute humanlike mental states to various animate and inanimate objects, including other people.
need for closure
The desire to reduce cognitive uncertainty, which heightens the importance of first impressions.
Behavior that reveals a person's feelings without words, through facial expressions, body language, and vocal cues.
Attribution to internal characteristics of an actor, such as ability, personality, mood, or effort.
The tendency for information presented early in a sequence to have more impact on impressions than information presented later.
The tendency for recently used or perceived words or ideas to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation of new information.
The process by which one's expectations about a person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that confirm those expectations.
Attribution to factors external to an actor, such as the task, other people, or luck.
A general term for the processes by which people come to understand one another.
Tariq is the first one to hand in the exam in psychology class. The instructor is committing the fundamental attribution error if he infers that Tariq:
is the most impatient person in the class.
One example of how our perception of others is influenced by appearance and other superficial characteristics is the finding that:
baby-faced defendants accused of intentional crimes are more likely to be found innocent than defendants with mature facial features.
The two-step model of the attribution process involves personal attributes that are ________ and situational variables that require ________.
automatic; conscious adjustment
According to Kelly's covariation theory, people use three kinds of covariation information to attribute behavior. These are:
consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency.
People appear to differ along five broad personality factors. Which of the personality factors do observers most easily discern?
Heider grouped all attribution explanations into two categories:
personal and situational.
Hansen and Hansen found that people are more likely to pick out a discrepant ________ face from a crowd than a discrepant ________ face.
Which of the following is using the availability heuristic?
Samir, who prefers to drive rather than fly because the vivid pictures of the latest plane crash are still etched on his mind.
The actor-observer effect is the tendency to make personal attributions for the behavior of ________ and situational attributions for ________.
In a 1995 study of Olympic Games silver and bronze medal winners, Medevec found that:
bronze medal winners were happier than silver medal winners.
When people are trying to deceive, the surest way to tell is to pay attention to their:
One consequence of the belief in a just world is that:
rape victims are believed to have contributed to their own victimization.
The tendency to focus on people's personality traits and ignore ________ when explaining behavior is called the fundamental attribution error.
People who buy lottery tickets with high hopes of winning and remain oblivious to the odds are demonstrating:
the base-rate fallacy.
In Asch's experiment on the primacy effect, what type of impression did participants form when they were told that a person was "envious, stubborn, critical, impulsive, industrious, and intelligent"?
A negative impression, based solely on the first trait.
What were the findings of the "Pygmalion in the classroom" study?
High teacher expectations resulted in an increase in IQ scores.
The theory that describes how people explain the causes of others' behavior is:
The tendency to seek, interpret, and create information that verifies existing beliefs is the:
Five-year-old Nandita is looking forward to her next birthday party. She repeatedly tells her mother everything that will happen during the event. She correctly lists all the sequential details. In other words, Nandita has mastered the:
The tendency to provoke behavior that confirms our expectations is called the:
Looking old won't get you a job as a bank teller. (T/F)
People who walk slowly are seen as being more powerful than people who sway their hips and swing their arms when walking.(T/F)
A firm handshake makes a good first impression all over the world.(T/F)
Words can deceive, but facial expressions can reveal whether or not someone is being untruthful.(T/F)
More people die as a result of shootings, fire, floods, and bombings than they do from heart attacks, strokes, and diabetes.(T/F)
A positive, negative, or mixed reaction to a person, object, or idea.
A multiple-item questionnaire designed to measure a person's attitude toward some object.
central route to persuasion
The process by which a person thinks carefully about a communication and is influenced by the strength of its arguments.
cognitive dissonance theory
The theory that holding inconsistent cognitions arouses psychological tension that people become motivated to reduce.
The process of thinking about and scrutinizing the arguments contained in a persuasive communication.
facial electromyograph (EMG)
An electronic instrument that records facial muscle activity associated with emotions and attitudes.
Implicit Association Test (IAT)
A covert measure of unconscious attitudes derived from the speed at which people respond to pairings of concepts—such as black or white with good or bad.
An attitude, such as prejudice, that one is not aware of having.
The idea that exposure to weak versions of a persuasive argument increases later resistance to that argument.
A condition in which people refrain from engaging in a desirable activity, even when only mild punishment is threatened.
A condition in which people freely perform an attitude-discrepant behavior without receiving a large reward.
need for cognition (NC)
A personality variable that distinguishes people on the basis of how much they enjoy effortful cognitive activities.
peripheral route to persuasion
The process by which a person does not think carefully about a communication and is influenced instead by superficial cues.
The process by which attitudes are changed.
The theory that people react against threats to their freedom by asserting themselves and perceiving the threatened freedom as more attractive.
A delayed increase in the persuasive impact of a noncredible source.
theory of planned behavior
The theory that attitudes toward a specific behavior combine with subjective norms and perceived control to influence a person's actions.
Lola is high in need for evaluation, and Barry is low in need for evaluation. Which of the following is probably true?
Lola is more opinionated than is Barry.
According to Fazio et al. (1977), when someone behaves in a way that is only mildly discrepant with his or her attitude, any subsequent change is best attributed to:
Which of the following is unlikely to increase source credibility?
a. Arguing strongly for one's own interests.
b. Using the "overheard communicator" technique.
c. Taking an unpopular stand.
d. Arguing against one's own interests.
arguing strongly for ones own interests
The ________ is the leading psychometric tool used to assess attitudes.
A review of magazine ads in the United States and Korea has shown that advertisements in Korea focus more on ________, while ads in the United States focus more on ________.
Owen behaved until the new babysitter ordered him to go to bed. Even though he was exhausted, he ran around the house screaming that his parents let him stay up for as long as he wants. With his refusal to give up his usual freedom, Owen is displaying:
LaPiere's 1934 study, during which he accompanied a young Chinese couple to 250 restaurants, hotels, and campgrounds, revealed that:
people's professed attitudes do not always determine their behavior.
Ira is hired to market a product that he considers inferior. Unable to stand feeling like a hypocrite, he repairs his damaged self-concept by convincing himself that the product is good. Ira's attitude change is explained by:
A computer company wants people to buy its new word processor. For the central route to persuasion, what length and degree of discrepancy should the ads have?
Long, but without repetition and with moderate discrepancy.
Gloria has to decide between two equally attractive apartments immediately. Brehm's classic (1956) study predicts that right after she picks one of the apartments, she will:
proceed to convince herself that she picked the better of the two.
According to Cooper and Fazio's (1984) "new look" at cognitive dissonance, the first step in the process by which cognitive dissonance is aroused and reduced requires that a person's attitude-discrepant behavior have:
desired negative consequences.
Sixteen-year-old Carmen wants to persuade her parents to allow her to go on an overnight skiing trip with a group of older friends. Which of the following tactics would help her (weak) argument?
Catching them in a good mood.
An attitude is stronger and more predictive of behavior when it is based on:
In Festinger's classical study of cognitive dissonance, how did the participants evaluate the activity?
Those who were paid $1 found it enjoyable. Everyone else was bored.
When people critically evaluate a message, they take the ________ route to persuasion. When they do not consider the message but focus on other cues, they are taking the ________ route to persuasion.
What is the inoculation hypothesis?
Exposure to weak versions of strong arguments helps one resist when faced with the strong message
When faced with a counterattitudinal message, people in a positive mood are likely to:
use the peripheral route to persuasion.
Research on subliminal messages show that they:
do not work at all.
Research on role playing indicates that:
behavior can determine attitudes.
Aronson and Mills found that coeds who underwent severe initiation were more likely to say that the discussion of sexual behavior of animals was:
People generally report their true opinions, beliefs, and attitudes when asked.
The muscles in your face may give away your true attitude. (T/F)
It is possible that you have an attitude that you don't know you have.(T/F)
Attitudes are one thing that your genes don't control.(T/F)
Information from sources that the listener does not regard as credible has little persuasive value.
A cultural orientation in which interdependence, cooperation, and social harmony take priority over personal goals.
Changes in behavior that are elicited by direct requests.
The tendency to change our perceptions, opinions, or behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms.
A two-step compliance technique in which an influencer prefaces the real request with one that is so large that it is rejected.
A two-step compliance technique in which an influencer sets the stage for the real request by first getting a person to comply with a much smaller request.
Interpersonal "credits" that a person earns by following group norms.
A cultural orientation in which independence, autonomy, and self-reliance take priority over group allegiances.
Influence that produces conformity when a person believes others are correct in their judgments.
A two-step compliance technique in which the influencer secures agreement with a request but then increases the size of that request by revealing hidden costs.
The process by which dissenters produce change within a group.
Influence that produces conformity when a person fears the negative social consequences of appearing deviant.
Behavior change produced by the commands of authority.
The change of beliefs that occurs when a person privately accepts the position taken by others.
A superficial change in overt behavior without a corresponding change of opinion that is produced by real or imagined group pressure.
social impact theory
The theory that social influence depends on the strength, immediacy, and number of source persons relative to target persons.
A two-step compliance technique in which the influencer begins with an inflated request, then decreases its apparent size by offering a discount or bonus.
In one experiment, women were asked to answer survey questions. Those who agreed were later called and asked to allow several men to rummage through their kitchen drawers and cabinets. This is an example of the ________ compliance technique.
foot in the door
in the Asch study, participants conformed for ________ reasons, while in the Sherif study they conformed for ________ reasons.
In Milgram's initial study of obedience, ________ percent of the participants delivered the ultimate punishment of 450 volts.
After John hired the lowest-bidding contractor to paint his house, he was presented with a contract that detailed additional charges for paints, brushes, paint removal, and the hauling away of debris. John is a victim of the ________ compliance technique.
After a friend tells Kristin that a seat belt saved his life, Kristin begins to buckle up whenever she gets in car. This is an example of:
informational social influence
Conformity is highest in cultures exhibiting:
low complexity, low affluence, and low heterogeneity.
In a later variation on his conformity experiment, Asch found that increasing the size of the group past ________ confederates produced negligible additional influence.
three or four
Individuals in the minority are best able to exert influence over a majority if they:
establish themselves as competent insiders by first conforming to the majority.
The influence that produces conformity through a person's fears of the negative social consequences of appearing deviant is called:
People are more likely to comply when hearing ________ than when hearing ________.
an unusual request; usual requests
Women are more likely to conform than men when:
they are in public.
The tendency to change our perceptions, opinions, and behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms is called:
What is the main difference between Asch and Sherif's conformity studies?
The Sherif participants were unsure of the correct answer; the Asch participants knew which choice was correct.
As a rule, Ilene always wears pants. When a friend invites her to his wedding, Ilene decides to wear a dress so as not to "stick out." This is an example of ________ influence and ________ conformity.
The most effective way to resist compliance traps is to:
be vigilant.(keeping careful watch for possible danger)
Sherif's (1936) study of the autokinetic effect best demonstrates:
normative influence and private conformity.
Which of the following is not true about the effectiveness of the door-in-the-face technique?
a. It works because of perceptual contrast.
b. It does not work if the first request is so extreme that it comes across as insincere.
c. It works because of reciprocal concessions.
d. It works because people feel a sense of psychological commitment after agreeing to an initial request.
It works because people feel a sense of psychological commitment after agreeing to an initial request.
Recent conformity research by Baron et al. (1996) shows that when confederates give the wrong answer, their behavior leads to the most conformity among participants who are completing a(n) ________ task and who are ________ motivated to get the right answer.
According to Moscovici, majorities derive their power to influence others by virtue of their:
The idea that social influence depends on the strength, immediacy, and number of source persons relative to target persons is most consistent with:
social impact theory.
Majority, as compared with minority, viewpoints exert a greater impact on public measures of conformity (T/F)
Only participants with authoritarian personalities were willing to obey the researcher's commands in Milgram's studies of obedience.(T/F)
Women are much easier to influence than are men.(T/F)
We tend to like other people who mimic our mannerisms more than those who do not.(T/F)
In order for the foot-in-the-door technique to work, targets must actually comply with the initial request.
Behavior intended to harm another individual.
A reduction of the motive to aggress that is said to result from any imagined, observed, or actual act of aggression.
The process by which the mass media (particularly television) construct a version of social reality for the public.
cycle of violence
The transmission of domestic violence across generations.
Reduction in emotion-related physiological reactivity in response to a stimulus.
Aggressing against a substitute target because aggressive acts against the source of the frustration are inhibited by fear or lack of access.
Inflicting harm for its own sake.
The idea that (1) frustration always elicits the motive to aggress; and (2) all aggression is caused by frustration.
hostile attribution bias
The tendency to perceive hostile intent in others.
Inflicting harm in order to obtain something of value.
Explicit sexual material.
social learning theory
The theory that behavior is learned through the observation of others as well as through the direct experience of rewards and punishments.
The tendency that the likelihood of aggression will increase by the mere presence of weapons.
Freud considered aggression toward others to be a momentary victory for:
our life instinct.
After a bad day in school, Sammy comes home and hits his younger brother without any apparent reason. According to Dollard, Sammy's aggressive behavior is an example of:
The belief that engaging in aggressive sports, such as ice hockey and boxing, can safely reduce subsequent aggression is most consistent with the concept of:
catharsis. ( process of releasing and providing relief from strong or repressed emotions)
Instrumental aggression refers to:
inflicting harm in order to gain something of value.
Violent crime in America has fallen. One explanation for this drop is:
aging of the population.
Research on social learning has demonstrated that aggressive behaviors:
can be encouraged by viewing models who are rewarded for aggressive behavior.
One factor that appears common to almost all of the least violent societies that have been identified is that they are:
cooperative as opposed to competitive.
Which of the following typifies what Gerner calls "cultivation"?
A television police drama that depicts four homicides in one precinct within one hour.
In his classic study of aggression, Bandura found that frustrated children who had observed an adult's aggressive behavior with an inflatable doll were later likely to:
duplicate the behavior of the adult.
________ are more likely to physically abuse their children, and the victims of physical abuse are more often ________.
According to Dollard's frustration-aggression hypothesis:
frustration always elicits the motive to aggress.
Which of the following stories contain an act of aggression?
a. Although his teammates intended to humiliate him by hiding his pants, Ed was able to borrow the extra pair of jeans that the swimming coach kept in his locker.
b. Harry, the vacuum cleaner salesman, always made a sale once he gained admission to someone's home.
c. When the dentist pulled out the decayed tooth, the patient felt agonizing pain.
d. Dr. Kevorkian helped a terminally ill person commit suicide.
Although his teammates intended to humiliate him by hiding his pants, Ed was able to borrow the extra pair of jeans that the swimming coach kept in his locker.
Todd is most likely to behave aggressively if he is in a ________ mood and his physiological arousal is ________.
All of the following have been shown to be subject to excitation transfer to aggression except:
a. extremes in temperatures.
c. physical exercise.
d. arousing music.
The effect of violent pornography is gender specific in the sense that it markedly increases ________ aggression.
Evolutionary theories explain aggression as a means to:
ensure genetic survival.
The two most important factors associated with sexual aggression among college students are:
gender and alcohol.
The culture of honor is more prevalent: (where?)
in the American South than in other regions of the United States.
The higher levels, in recent times, of wife-to-husband abuse as compared with husband-to-wife abuse, can be explained in terms of:
women acting in self-defense.
One reason alcohol increases aggression is that it:
induces alcohol myopia.
Future generations will remember the twentieth century for its violence, as well as for its technological developments. (T/F)
How boys are raised has a lot to do with the gender differences in aggression.
The availability and easy accessibility of guns in the United States is not related to the high rate of firearm violence.
The South has higher rates of violence than other regions in the country because of the warmer climate.
Referring to a behavior as "assertive" is not the same thing as saying that it is aggressive.
A form of sexism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect both negative, resentful beliefs and feelings and affectionate and chivalrous but potentially patronizing beliefs and feelings.
The theory that direct contact between hostile groups will reduce prejudice under certain conditions.
Behavior directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group.
Two or more persons perceived as related because of their interactions, membership in the same social category, or common fate.
An overestimate of the association between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated.
Racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally.
The tendency to discriminate in favor of ingroups over outgroups.
Groups with which an individual feels a sense of membership, belonging, and identity.
A cooperative learning method used to reduce racial prejudice through interaction in group efforts.
A form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalize.
outgroup homogeneity effect
The tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups.
Groups with which an individual does not feel a sense of membership, belonging, or identity.
Negative feelings toward persons based on their membership in certain groups.
Prejudice and discrimination based on a person's racial background, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one racial group over another.
realistic conflict theory
The theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources.
Feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared with others.
Prejudice and discrimination based on a person's gender, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one one gender over another.
The classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes.
social identity theory
The theory that people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self-esteem.
social role theory
The theory that small gender differences are magnified in perception by the contrasting social roles occupied by men and women.
A belief or association that links a whole group of people with certain traits or characteristics.
stereotype content model
A model proposing that the relative status and competition between groups influence group stereotypes along the dimensions of competence and warmth.
The experience of concern about being evaluated based on negative stereotypes about one's group.
A method of presenting stimuli so faintly or rapidly that people do not have any conscious awareness of having been exposed to them.
A shared goal that can be achieved only through cooperation among individuals or groups.
Beliefs that people have about individuals based on their membership in a social group are called:
In Gordon Postman's classic 1947 experiment, participants were shown a subway scene with a black man dressed in a suit and a white man brandishing a razor. After the sixth re-telling of the scene, in the majority of cases, the:
razor changed hands from the white man to the black man.
The outgroup homogeneity effect occurs when we perceive everyone in our group to be ________ and everyone in their group to be ________.
different; the same
A person who holds to the stereotype that ex-mental patients are dangerous is more likely to notice and remember when an ex-mental patient commits a serious crime. This is an example of:
the illusory correlation.
Research by Leinbach and Fagot (1993) suggests that children can distinguish people based on sex as early as:
nine months old.
In Sherif's classic Robber's Cave study, what was finally effective in promoting peace between the "Rattlers" and the "Eagles"?
The introduction of a goal that required cooperation.
The formation of stereotypes involves two processes: ________ and perceiving one's ingroup as being different from outgroups.
Realistic conflict theory views all hostility between groups as emanating from:
competition for limited resources.
When Rubin asked new parents of boys and girls to describe their babies:
girls were described as softer and smaller, boys as larger and stronger.
When a woman behaves as aggressively as a man, she is likely to be seen as more aggressive than the man because of:
the contrast effect.
A negative feeling toward persons based on their membership in certain groups is called:
In Steele and Aronson's study of stereotype threat and academic performance, black students did significantly worse on a test when the test was described as:
an IQ test.
Just because he's black, Quincy was invited to try out for the school's basketball team, and just because he's black, his father was refused membership in the local country club. The first event reflects ________, whereas the second event reflects ________.
In meeting the conditions for the contact hypothesis, the Brooklyn Dodgers provided for equal status among team members, personal interactions, dedication to the common goal of winning games, and:
support from the owner, managers, and coaches.
The best strategy for avoiding the influence of stereotypes is to:
activate thoughts about individual members.
Threats to a woman's body image can cause a woman to ________ on intellectual tasks.
We tend to see our ingroup as homogeneous:
when we perceive a threat to our group or its identity.
Which of the following conditions fosters ingroup loyalty and outgroup prejudice?
Having one's self-esteem highly invested in the group.
Three factors enable us to disregard stereotypes and judge others on an individual basis. These are personal information, cognitive ability, and:
What is the status of racism in contemporary America?
Blatant racism hardly exists, but a subtler form of racism has surfaced.
The way a person typically interacts with significant others.
A relationship in which the participants expect and desire mutual responsiveness to each other's needs.
A secure, trusting, stable partnership.
The theory that people are most satisfied with a relationship when the ratio between benefits and contributions is similar for both partners.
A relationship in which the participants expect and desire strict reciprocity in their interactions.
The process whereby arousal caused by one stimulus is added to arousal from a second stimulus and the combined arousal is attributed to the second stimulus.
The tendency to prefer people who are highly selective in their social choices over those who are more readily available.
A close relationship between two adults involving emotional attachment, fulfillment of psychological needs, or interdependence.
A feeling of deprivation about existing social relations.
The proposition that people are attracted to others who are similar in physical attractiveness.
mere exposure effect
The phenomenon whereby the more often people are exposed to a stimulus, the more positively they evaluate that stimulus.
Romantic love characterized by high arousal, intense attraction, and fear of rejection.
A mutual exchange between what we give and receive—for example, liking those who like us.
Revelations about the self that a person makes to others.
A person's preference for members of the same sex (homosexuality), opposite sex (heterosexuality), or both sexes (bisexuality).
social exchange theory
A perspective that views people as motivated to maximize benefits and minimize costs in their relationships with others.
triangular theory of love
A theory proposing that love has three basic components—intimacy, passion, and commitment—that can be combined to produce eight subtypes.
The belief that physically attractive individuals also possess desirable personality characteristics.
Evolutionary psychologists believe that college students consistently rate computerized facial composites as more attractive than actual yearbook photos because they're more:
Research has shown that people pair up with others who are as attractive as they are. This is known as:
the matching hypothesis.
In an equitable relationship:
the ratio between benefits and contributions is similar.
Schachter's (1959) research found that when ________, we want to be with others, but Sarnoff and Zimbardo (1961) found that when ________, we want to be by ourselves.
In Sternberg's triangular theory of love, the three basic components of love are:
intimacy, passion, and commitment.
According to social exchange theory, people are more satisfied in relationships that provide more ________ and fewer ________.
Larry and Kim are heterosexual American siblings who happen to have a deep family secret. Which one of them is more likely to share the secret, and with whom?
Kim with a female friend
We tend to hold to the stereotype that "What is beautiful is also ________."
Khalid and Ginny are newlyweds. One day, when Khalid brings a coworker home without telling his bride, Ginny shuts herself up in her room. If there is a happy marriage, how might Khalid explain his wife's behavior to his coworker?
"She's having a bad day."
Research has shown that people cope with loneliness by doing all of the following except:
a. using alcohol and drugs.
b. trying to improve their physical appearance.
c. investing effort in succeeding in a different area of their lives.
d. avoiding distractions
The loneliest group in American society is:
adolescents and young adults.
People with secure attachment styles cope with jealousy by:
getting angry and lashing out at their mate.
Mita's study found that people prefer to view ________ of themselves and ________ of others.
a mirror image; an actual photo
As an infant, Hannah was somewhat aloof and did not react much when her mother left her for a while, or when she returned. As an adult, Hannah is not comfortable being close to others and finds it difficult to establish trust in her relationships. What attachment style is Hannah manifesting?
When they represent themselves in personal ads, women tend to offer ________, while men tend to offer ________.
In Buss's cross-cultural study, both men and women said that the qualities they deem most important in a potential mate are:
kindness, dependability, humor, and a nice personality.
Open-heart surgery patients who were assigned ________ roommates became ________ anxious.
Statistically, in the United States, who is the most likely to have married without love?
a female in 1967
Snyder found that men who thought that they were having a phone conversation with an attractive woman were more likely to:
influence the woman to become warmer and more confident.
________ is to companionate love as ________ is to intimate love.
The tendency for groups to spend more time discussing shared information (information already known by all or most group members) than unshared information (information known by only one or a few group members).
A technique that attempts to increase the production of creative ideas by encouraging group members to speak freely without criticizing their own or others' contributions.
The loss of a person's sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against deviant behavior.
collective effort model
The theory that individuals will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their individual efforts will be important, relevant, and meaningful for achieving outcomes that they value.
A theory that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others distract from the task and create attentional conflict.
The condition in which commitments to a failing course of action are increased to justify investments already made.
evaluation apprehension theory
A theory that the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects only when those others are seen as potential evaluators.
graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction (GRIT)
A strategy for unilateral persistent efforts to establish trust and cooperation between opposing parties.
The extent to which forces push group members closer together, such as through feelings of intimacy, unity, and commitment to group goals.
The exaggeration of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members through group discussion.
group support systems
Specialized interactive computer programs that are used to guide group meetings, collaborative work, and decision-making processes.
A group decision-making style characterized by an excessive tendency among group members to seek concurrence.
A negotiated resolution to a conflict in which all parties obtain outcomes that are superior to what they would have obtained from an equal division of the contested resources.
mere presence theory
The proposition that the mere presence of others is sufficient to produce social facilitation effects.
A type of dilemma in which one party must make either cooperative or competitive moves in relation to another party. The dilemma is typically designed so that the competitive move appears to be in one's self-interest, but if both sides make this move, they both suffer more than if they had both cooperated.
The reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group processes, such as problems of coordination and motivation.
Social dilemmas involving how two or more people will share a limited resource.
A situation in which a self-interested choice by everyone will create the worst outcome for everyone.
A process whereby the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks.
social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE)
A model of group behavior that explains deindividuation effects as the result of a shift from personal identity to social identity.
A group-produced reduction in individual output on tasks where contributions are pooled.
A shared system for remembering information that enables multiple people to remember information together more efficiently than they could do so alone.
When Dodd (1985) asked students what they would do if they were invisible for twenty-four hours, the most common response was:
c. "Rob a bank."
Kevin and ten other sophomores just formed a new college fraternity. According to Tuckman, the initial mode of behavior of Kevin and the other fraternity members is most likely to be:
Which of the following comments would you be most likely to overhear in a group characterized by groupthink?
"The fact that we're all in agreement is a good indication that this is the best plan of action."
Group polarization occurs when the initial tendencies of the group are:
The escalation of the war in Vietnam, despite mounting evidence that this strategy was failing, is an example of:
entrapment or escalation effect.
Mrs. Lang is going to have her seventh-grade social studies class do group projects. In order to minimize the effects of social loafing, she might:
grade individual as well as group efforts.
During which process of group development do members try to shape the group in accordance with their own inclinations?
Which of the following is a conjunctive task?
A relay race
Research on groups suggests that gender differences in the roles people play within group contexts can be reduced by:
making men and women feel similarly competent.
Nathan laments that too few citizens donate money to the local police force. In effect, he is complaining about the results of a:
public goods dilemma.
One of the differences between a collective and a real group is that:
only group members interact meaningfully with each other.
Research by Johnson and Downing (1979) suggests that sense of deindividuation:
can lead to positive, as well as destructive, behavior.
The group is a strong as its "weakest link" when the task is:
People who respond to mixed-motive situations by seeking to maximize their own gain relative to the gain of others have:
a competitive orientation.
A community service club has formed to organize volunteers who want to help the needy. The goal of the club is to encourage its members to donate their time, interdependently, wherever there is a need. One thing that can enhance the performance of the club's members is:
An excessive tendency among group members to seek consensus is called:
Social loafing is most likely to occur in which of the following groups?
Summer campers who are asked to clean the campgrounds of litter in preparation for visiting day.
The more groups focus on ________, the more likely that they will be characterized by groupthink.
Which of the following might be characterized as a public goods dilemma?
Shortage of contributions causes a public television station to cancel programs.
A baseball player and the team owner can't agree on a contract. They ask Harold to listen to their positions, agreeing to abide by his decision. Harold is being asked to act as:
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