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Intro to School Psych
Terms in this set (57)
the extent to which a test yields consistent results
consistency within measure
consistency of a test over time
consistency across people
alternate form reliability
consistency within versions
the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure
the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it's supposed to cover
whether the test measures the particular construct it is intended to measure
tests that constructs that are expected to be related are, in fact, related
tests that constructs that should have no relationship do, in fact, have no relationship
is the extent to which a measure is related to an outcome
examines the test score as it relates to some currently available outcome
examines the test score as it relates to future performance
types of assessment
intellectual, academic skills,social-emotional/behavior
types of academic skills assessments
Norm-referenced and curriculum-based
rating scales, interviews, observations, functional behavior assessment
standardized/norm-referenced academic tests
Usually, comprehensive measures of academic skills; Administration time: .75 - 2 hours; Alignment w/ curriculum is questionable/variable; Administered by SPs or teachers with specialized training; used for SPED referrals
Typically target one distinct skillset; Administration time: 2 - 5 minutes; Administered mostly by teachers but sometimes SPs; Used for SPED referrals and school-wide screenings
Will most frequently so social-emotional/behavior assessments on which disorders?
Emotional Disabilities, ADHD, ASD
Will most frequently do social-emotional/behavior assessments on which disorders?
Emotional Disabilities, ADHD, ASD
Examples of projectives
Drawing tasks, thematic tasks, sentence completion, rorschach
Are projectives commonly used?
Being used less frequently by school psychologists today. Has poor test-re-test reliability and validity issues
What are projectives good for?
for rapport builder, potentially for hypotheses for therapy
Broad band measures
Collect the general picture of the student's current level of functioning. examples are: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Behavioral Assessment for Children (BASC)
Narrow band measures
Specific information on any area in which a student appears to be struggling. examples are: CONNERS and Child Depression Inventory (CDI)
Engaged Active (AET)
Writing, Reading aloud, Raising a hand, Talking to the teacher about the assigned material, Talking to a peer about the assigned material Looking up a word in a dictionary
Engaged Passive (PET)
Listening to a lecture, Looking at an academic worksheet, Silently reading assigned material, Looking at the blackboard during teacher instruction, Listening to a peer respond to a question
Defined as any instance of motor activity that are not directly associated with an assigned academic task
Any instance of motor activity that are not directly associated with an assigned academic task
Defined as those times when a student is passively not attending to an assigned academic activity for a period of at least 3 consecutive seconds. Included are those times when a student is quietly waiting after the completion of an assigned task, but is not engaged in an activity authorized by the teacher.
Those times when a student is passively not attending to an assigned academic activity for a period of at least 3 consecutive seconds. Included are those times when a student is quietly waiting after the completion of an assigned task, but is not engaged in an activity authorized by the teacher.
Factors that influence development
Poverty, poor parenting, maltreatment, marital discord. parent-child relationships, self regulation, good cognitive development
Domain General Academic Interventions
Contingency Management, Self-Management, Cognitive Strategy Instruction, Peer Tutoring / Cooperative learning, Performance Feedback, Direct Instruction
Applying principals of behaviorism (e.g. Token economy, Response-cost)
Key skills of becoming a reader (think of hand)
Phonological awareness, alphabetic principle, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension
The ability to hear and manipulatesounds in spoken language (not related directly to text)
alphabetic principle (phonics)
Letter sound correspondence and the ability to segment and blend letter sound combinations
The ability to read connected text quickly and accurately
Oral language skills, understanding of word meaning
Understanding what is being read; considered the "essence of reading"
Extra Skills of Emergent Readers
letter knowledge and print awareness
The formally recommended sanctioned, or adopted curriculum
the one that is based on what teachers do and use- the actual curriculum
what students actually learn
Pedagogy includes a variety of actions that teachers can use during "teaching."
Principles of effective instruction
Identifying "big ideas" and organizing curricula around them; Teaching explicit strategies within the curriculum; Activate prior knowledge; Scaffolding instruction; Integrate new and old skills and concepts; Review
What tier is differentiated instruction introduced?
Tier 2, but in reality instruction should be differentiated for all students
What does PASS stand for?
1. Prioritize instruction
2. Adapt instruction, materials, or the environment
3. Systematically teach with the "SCREAM" (i.e., structure, clarity, redundancy, enthusiasm, appropriate rate, and maximized engagement through questioning and feedback) variables
4. Systematically evaluate the outcomes of your instruction.
Is peer tutoring always effective?
Not ALWAYS effective with children with disabilities, that is why it is important to still monitor all interventions
Scripted presentations, small-group instruction, unison responding, signals, pacing, corrections, praise
What percentage of mental health services are offered in the schools?
What makes therapy work?
40% Client variables % extra therapeudic events; 30% Therapeutic relationship; 15% technique and model factors; 15% expectancy and placebo effects
What percent of communication happens non-verbally (attending)?
Primary skills associated with the communication of empathy:
1. Nonverbal and verbal attending- involves our behaviors which reflect our paying full attention, in an accepting and supportive way, to the client. 2. Paraphrasing content of client communications- Summarize the key message that the client is communicating.
3. Reflecting patient feelings and implicit messages- "it sounds like that makes you feel sad?"
How to use CBM in Tier 1
benchmark assessment three to four times per year to help identify students at risk; monitoring of student progress across the year
How to use CBM in Tier 2
strategic monitoring on a monthly basis
How to use CBM in Tier 3
frequent (e.g., weekly) progress monitoring on individualized goals
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
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