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Historiography Wingerd Baylor
Terms in this set (46)
group of French historical scholars (Annales was a journal) gained a lot of influence after WW II; focused on long-term elements in historical change. Example: population, economy, climate and natural resources. Relegated politics to a lesser role and avoided narrative of "events." They studied lives of ordinary people of the past and tried to reconstruct the collective outlook of social classes. Special attention paid to the inarticulate and illiterate - ex. American slaves, English working classes and people of Africa.
French term for which there is no precise English equivalent, but 'attitudes' and 'outlook' come very close. It us used of a kind of history that is concerned with people's mental lives and attitudes, and especially those aspects of them that remain tacit, but which nonetheless shape daily lives, child-rearing for ex.
systematic application of economic theory, econometric techniques, and other formal or mathematical methods to the study of history (especially, social and economic history)
The formulation of historical situations which did not exist or occur in order to better understand what did happen. Eg - If Germany had not unified, would WWI have occurred?
is a theoretical paradigm positing that elements of human culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel.
is a label formulated by American academics to denote the heterogeneous works of a series of mid-20th-century French and continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to international prominence in the 1960s and '70s. A major theme of poststructuralism is instability in the human sciences, due to the complexity of humans themselves and the impossibility of fully escaping structures in order to study them.
is a late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism. Postmodernism includes skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is often associated with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as twentieth-century post-structural thought.
Whig approach to history-writing is the notion of upward movement of mankind, that of constant, often heroic progress--a progress that may experience setbacks but leads from a poorer past to a better present. Its optimism tended to be pro-western.
established on the basis of explaining the method by which scholars recorded history, and what aspects of their personality or environment effected those recordings.
a sub-field of history and gender studies, which looks at the past from the perspective of gender. It is in many ways, an outgrowth of women's history. The discipline considers in what ways historical events and periodization impact women differently than men. For instance, in a seminal article in 1977 Joan Kelly questioned whether the notion of a Renaissance was relevant to women.  Gender historians are also interested in how sexual difference has been perceived and configured at different times and places, usually with the assumption that such differences are socially constructed.
theory which dictates that the major forces that motivate human actions return in a cycle.
The Donation of Constantine
This document claimed that all church officers were to be subject to the Pope, as well as the fact that the Papacy had authority of all of Rome and Italy.
Educated people MUST use knowledge to improve society
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America. (616)
An approach to the study of social life developed by Max Weber in which sociologists mentally attempt to place themselves in the shoes of other people and identify what they think and how they feel; translates roughly as "understanding."
The argument by Frederick Jackson Turner that the frontier experience helped make American socity more democratic; emphasized cheap, unsettled land and the absence of a landed aristocracy.
The strong consciousness of an and attention to the institutions, themes, styles, and forms of the past, made accessible by historical research, textual study, and archaeology.
That you learn the rules of a community and must be able to play by those rules. Knowing how to play by those rules makes someone a valued insider who can participate with the group in their setting.
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
(ca. 485-425 B.C.E.) Heir to the technique of historia- "investigation"- developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands. He traced the antecedents of and chronicled the Persian Wars between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, thus originating the Western tradition of historical writing.
Greek historian. Considered the greatest historian of antiquity, he wrote a critical history of the Peloponnesian War that contains the funeral oration of Pericles
(EXTRA) historian and Greek-born slave who recorded the genius and virtues of the early Republic, and warned of vices which could cause it to fall, Greek writer, captive after Rome rose amazed by Roman power-capturing rule of nearly entire inhabited world emphasized the Roman constitution
one of Rome's most famous historians; used Christians as a scapegoat to divert the anger directed at thim
Early-fourth-century church father known as the "Father of Church History," as his ten-volume book, History of the Christian Church, was the first to provide an extensive chronicle of Christianity's early years, from the days of Jesus down to Eusebius's own time (the early part of the reign of Constantine). Eusebius is the primary source of information for many of the events and writers of the first three centuries of the church.
The western world's first important female historian who analyzed the reign of her father, Emperor Alexis I. Refers to her father as the man who built the canals to protect the city of Bithynia against the turks. She viewed her father as devoted and the turks as greedy.
Joachim of Fiore
preached revelations, belives all christendom will be united against muslims unify christendom and defeat anti christ who he thought was musline. 1291 muslims conquered
1405-1457 Important Ren. scholar. Used methods of linguistic and historical analysis to prove that the Donation of Constantine, a document of 4th century giving pope right to rule over central Italy, was in fact an 8th century forgery. So what - new learning and attitudes undermining old, accepted sources of authority.
(1737 - 1794) Author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, published in 1776, one of the first modern histories that attempted to explain the past as a guide to the future.
Johann Gottfried von herder
Influential German Writer (1744-1803) he wrote Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind in which he said that each country should have its own national identity not one borrowed from another country, he called it Volksgeist., German philosopher who advocated intuition over reason (1744-1803); advocated intuition over reason
Leopold van Ranke
1830's historian who said "wie es eigentlich gewesen" '"simply" to show how it really was.' This is a view of history completely void of analysis. Carr describes his views as "piously believing that divine providence would take care of the meaning of history if he took care of the facts." He was a part of the reason that history during the 19th century was very fact oriented and not geared towards asking questions, it blandly about accepting the truth. established hisotry as separate discipline, not philosophy or literature.
(1795-1832) British Romantic writer, the hero never destroyed himself, like in other literature of the time, but transformed society instead. In Carlyle's historical works, he stressed that historical events were determined by the deeds of such heroes.
"Father of American History" who helped found the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845 as secretary of the navy; published a superpatriotic history of the US to 1789 that grew out of vast research in Europe and America
was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist and hermeneutic philosopher, who held Hegel's Chair in Philosophy at the University of Berlin. As a polymathic philosopher, working in a modern research university, Dilthey's research interests revolved around questions of scientific methodology, historical evidence and history's status as a science. He could be considered an empiricist, in contrast to the idealism prevalent in Germany at the time, but his account of what constitutes the empirical and experiential differs from British empiricism and positivism in its central epistemological and ontological assumptions, which are drawn from German literary and philosophical traditions.
Frederick Jackson Turner
(1861 - 1932) He was an American historian in the early 20th century. He is best known for The Significance of the Frontier in American History, where he stated that the spirit and success of the United States is directly tied to the country's westward expansion. According to Turner, the forging of the unique and rugged American identity occurred at the juncture between the civilization of settlement and the savagery of wilderness.
A historian who believed that the ideology presented in the Constitution was a result of the economic needs of the land-owning Founding Fathers (rather than philosophical principles). His ideas fell out of favor in the 1950's, when other historians pointed out problems with his research.
Carter G. Woodson
African-American historian, author, journalist and the founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. He was one of the first scholars to value and study Black History.
The writer whose The Decline of the West proposed that European society had entered the final stage of its existence was
English historian of the early 20th century, educated at Oxford, who considered the physical environment in which any society lives to be a major determinant of its history and culture. An early voice for both environmental history and globalization.
wrote "modes of feeling and thought" which is saying how harsh the conditions were in the middle ages when they had the fuedal system that people paid closer attention to god and their after life a lot more than we do
Claimed that in the late 15th century, Europeans had "either to make use of Columbus' discovery and to concentrate on America or to profit from the discovery of the sea route around the Cape of Good Hope and to throw itself upon Asia"
Influential liberal protestant clergyman who crusaded against what he perceived as the drift away from Christian foundations for over five decades after WWI.He was vehemently against fascism, communism, and pacifism, and divided the world into "children of light" and "children of darkness."
says that changing values can change the way we write history. This doesn't mean we should reject objectivity. But when our interests change, the questions we ask of the past will change.
discipline, is a means of social organization. Discipline is imposed when a person acts in a manner contrary to the values of the dominant group.
Professor of History at Stanford; famous for his "literary criticism" approach to the theory of writing history. Influenced by Kenneth Burke
Joan Wallach Scott
(born December 18, 1941) is an American historian of France with contributions in gender history and intellectual history. She is currently the Harold F. Linder Professor at the School of Social Science in the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
Comments on Fundamentalism: emphasis on continuity between conservative Christianity and culture, a series of shocks: "social views were frozen"
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