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John Adams
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
Thomas Jefferson
A prominent statesman,this man became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, he took up the cause of strict constructionists, advocating limited federal government.
Alexander Hamilton
First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Henry Knox
First Secretary of War. He managed Native American relations, passed the bill that made it possible for only the federal government to control native lands, rather than the states.
John Jay
This man played an important role in the establishment of the new government under the Constitution. One of the authors of The Federalist Papers, he was involved in the drafting of the Constitution. He was also the first chief justice of the Supreme Court.
Citizen Genet
French diplomat who in 1793 tried to draw the United States into the war between France and England (1763-1834)
Anthony Wayne
"Mad Anthony." American general who defeated the Native Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.
Talleyrand
French minister who demanded $250,000 before he would negotiate with American ministers, known as the XYZ Affair
Mathew Lyon
Republican congressman who attacked Federalist Roger Griswold with fire tongs., arrested under the sedition act
J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur
Letters of an American Farmer
funding at par
This meant that the federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country.
strict construction
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
loose construction
belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit
agrarian
referring to the culture of agricultural communities and the type of tenure system that determines access to land and the kind of cultivation practices employed there
assumption
Economic policy of Alexander Hamilton where the central government would assume the debts of all the states. It would tie the states closer to the federal government.
implied powers
Those delegated powers of the National Government that are suggested by the expressed powers set out in the Constitution; those "necessary and proper" to carry out the expressed powers
tariff
a tax on imported goods
excise tax
a tax that is measured by the amount of business done (not on property or income from real estate)
compact theory
The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.
Federalists
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Republicans
Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system.
nullification
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
cabinet
secretaries of the executive departments, the vice president, and other top officials that help the president make decisions and policy
Bank of the U.S.
a bank chartered by the US congress on feb. 25, 1791. the charter was for 20 years. The bank was created to handle the financial needs and requirements of the central government of the newly formed us, which had previously been 13 individual colonies with their own banks, currencies, and financial institutions and policies.
Bill of Rights
A formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
French Revolution
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
Jay's Treaty
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Neutrality Proclamation
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
Whisky Rebellion
1791 congress put a tax on all whisky made and sold in u,s, revolt tested strength of government, farmers grew corn to make whisky, refused to pay tax on it, 1794 western pa, farmers rebelled on tax collector by burning down his home, large angry mob marched through Pittsburgh, washington sent 13,000 troops stop rebellion, people ran away when heard the news.
Ninth Amendment
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Tenth Amendment
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
Pinckney's Treaty
agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.