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Nutrition exam 2
Terms in this set (84)
Organs of the GI tract
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intenstine, rectum
Accessory organs of the GI tract
Tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
Chewing to breakdown food
Break down starches(carbs)
Break down fats
What part of the esophagus prevents choking?
Wavelike muscular squeezing,moves food through GI tract
Ringlike muscles that prevent back flow of GI contents
Assists digestion, begins protein digestion, and activates protein degrading enzymes
What is gastric juice composed of
Water, digestive enzymes, hydrochloride acid
How does the stomach prevent auto digestion?
Cells secrete thick mucus that coats and protects stomach lining
Where does majority of absorption occur in the SI?
How does the SI increase surface area?
Folded walls, vili on each wall, microvili on each vili
Why is increased surface area a good thing?
More surface area allows for more absorption
Free movement of nutrients across the cell membrane
Uses carrier protein to move nutrients down a concentration gradient (higher concentration to lower concentration)
Involves carrier protein and uses energy. Moves nutrients against concentration gradient
Purpose of bacteria in the LI
Helps metabolize remaining food and synthesize some vitamins
Function of gallbladder
Bike storage and secretion
What is the gallbladder composed of
Water, bile, salts, fats
Where is bike produced?
Purpose of bile
Functions of pancreas
Hormones, glucagon & insulin, regulate blood glucose
What makes up pancreatic juices
Bicarbonate and digestive enzymes
What hormones does the pancreas produce
Glucagon & insulin
Function of the liver
Function blood coming from GI before passing into rest of the body, metabolize fats, proteins, carbs, storage of carbs as glycogen
What is a monosaccharide?
Examples of monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose
What is the primary source of fuel for cells?
What is a disaccharide?
Formed when 2 monosaccharides combine , held together by glycosidic bonds
What is gluconeogenisis?
Synthesis of glucose from non-glucose precursors
Purpose of gluconeogenisis
Provides glucose to the brain & RBCs
What is glycogen?
Storage form of glucose
Glycogen storage in the liver and muscles
More glycogen is stores in the liver compared to muscle, but more glycogen is stored in skeletal muscle because of its great mass
Dissolves in water, fermented by bacteria in the colon, slows glucose absorption, lowers blood cholesterol, promotes health of Li
Doesn't dissolve in or absorb water, not fermented by bacteria in the colon, aids in defecation
Nutrients have been removed
Nutrients have been added in addition to what was present
Nutrients that were removed have been added back
Minimal/ no processing
Carbohydrates transportation and absorption
1. Absorbed monosaccharides in enterocytes enter the portal vein for transport to the liver
2. Liver transforms fructose and galactose to glucose
3. The liver will: release glucose into bloodstream to maintain blood sugar, store excess glucose as glycogen, or store excess glucose as fat
What causes lactose maldigestion?
Deficit production of lactose enzyme
What ethnic groups are susceptible to lactose maldigestion?
Native Americans, Asians, African Americans
Secretion of carbs
1. Undigested carbs travel to the colon to be fermented by bacteria
2. Acids and gases produced by bacterial fermentation
3. Short chain fats produced by bacteria are metabolized for energy by the bacteria
4. May promote health of the colon
How are carbs protein sparing?
They supply enough dietary CHO to prevent breakdown of body protein
What organs store glucose?
Liver and pancreas
What organ releases hormones to regulate blood glucose & what are those hormones?
The pancreas, insulin & glucose
When is insulin released?
In the FED state
When is glucagon released?
In the FASTED state
Affect of epinephrine on blood glucose
"Fight or flight" response, stimulates both liver and muscle glycogen breakdown. RAISES BLOOD GLUCOSE
Type 1 diabetes
Occurs in children (10-14yrs), genetic, autoimmune, environmental factors, BODY STOPS PRODUCING INSULIN
Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes
Insulin therapy, dietary adjustments, physical activity
Type 2 diabetes
Occurs in people over 30 yrs, 90-95% of diabetes cases, genetic & ENVIRONMENTAL factors . Insulin is produced initially, but receptors on cell surfaces are INSULIN RESISTANT, so glucose isn't taken up
Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes
Oral medication, insulin injections, physical activity, dietary changes
3 classes of lipids
triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols
3 FA attached to glycerol. Most common type of lipid found in food
Contain glycerol, 2 FA, and a phosphorous containing acid
Function of phospholipids
Cell membrane structure & emulsification
Contain multi ring structure. Animal & plant sources. Cholesterol contained in animal products. Important for the following hormones: vitamin D, cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone
What are FA
Components of lipids, long chain of carbons flanked by hydrogen
Each carbon atom is "saturated" by a hydrogen atom, straight linear model, solid form.
One double bond, liquid @ room temp
Two double bonds, liquid @ room temp
What is a potential negative about saturated FA
Excess consumption is associated with plaque formation, atherosclerosis, & CVD
Omega 3 FA
Body can't make, fatty acid (alpha-linolenic acid), prevalent in cold water fatty fish, anti-inflammatory
Omega 6 FA
Body can't make, fatty acid (linolec acid), prevalent in plant based cooking oils, pro-inflammatory
Organs involved in lipid DATE
Mouth, stomach, SI, LI
How are fats absorbed in the SI?
98% of fat is absorbed
1. it's absorbed in the hepatic portal vein
2. it's then sent to the liver to be repackaged as TGs
How are fats transported?
1. Fats reformed to TG's and packaged into chylomicrons
2. Chylomicrons absorbed into lymph before circulating to blood
very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)
Rich in TG's, made in liver, CARRIES ENDOGENOUS LIPIDS
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
Contain remaining cholesterol from VLDL, transports cholesterol to tissues
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
High protein content, densest lipoprotein, produces by liver and intestine, picks up cholesterol from tissues and transports back to the liver
Health implications of low HDL
Less cholesterol cleared from tissues and blood stream, so cholesterol accumulates in tissues
Health implications of high LDL
Increase likelihood that scavenger cells in arteries will take up LDL, leads to build up of cholesterol in arteries
How to lower LDL
Decrease saturated fat intake, increase dietary fiber, increase MUFA & PUFA, weight loss
How to raise HDL
Regular physical activity, weight loss, moderate intake of alcohol
How do our bodies store fat?
Body conserves fat not immediately required for energy, body fat stores TG's eaten in food which are transported to fat cells and muscle
How do our bodies use fat?
LIPOLYSIS: adipocytes break down stored TG's into free FA's & glycerol
Functions of lipids
1. Provide energy
2. Efficient storage of energy
3. Fat soluble vitamin absorption and transportation
4. Provide components of cell membranes, hormones, emulsifiers
Function of TG's
Store energy for later use
Difference in starch structures
Saturated FA: no double bond
Monosaccharide: 1 double bond
Polysaccharide: 2 double bonds
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