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Theo Midterm Vocab 2

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586 B.C.
Jerusalem falls after Babylonian siege
537 B.C.
Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Babylon and allows Israelites to return to their land
Cyrus the Great
the person that conquered Babylon and allowed the Jews to return to their land
4th c. B.C. - 1st c. A.D.
Hellenization of Judaism
63 B.C.
Romans occupy Jerusalem
Pharisees
group of Jews that believed in a literal following of the law
Sadducees
group of Jews that were in charge of the Temple until its destruction
Zealots
group of Jews that advocated a violent overthrow of Roman dominion and expected a warrior Messiah
Sicarii
Hebrew/Latin name for the Zealots
Essenes
group of Jews that lived in a monastic desert community
Qumran
the location where the Essenes lived
Dead Sea Scrolls
the Essenes were responsible for these recently found documents
70 A.D.
date of the destruction of the Temple
66 A.D.
Jewish rebellion against Roman rule leading to destruction of the temple
General Titus
Roman emperor responsible for the destruction of the Temple
Western Wall
the only part of the temple that remains today
Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
Name and date of the council that restricted the rights of Jews
Shoah
the Jewish name for the Holocaust
1948
year the state of Israel was created for protection
late 1st - early 2nd c. A.D.
rabbis determine the Jewish canon
Tanakh
complete Hebrew bible
Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim
three parts of the Tanakh
law
Torah
prophets
Nevi'im
writings
Ketuvim
Mishnah
first rabbinic commentary; codification of the "oral Torah"
200-250 A.D.
Mishnah was finalized around this time
Gemara
Rabbinic commentary on the Mishnah
400-450 A.D.
Gemara was finished around this time
Talmud
combination of Mishnah and Gemara; contained Rabbinic debates
instruction, learning
literal meaning of Talmud
Halakhah, Haggadah
two categories of material in the Talmud
Halakhah
laws, precepts, how to live faithful to the Law
Haggadah
stories, homilies, interpretations of biblical passages
Moses Maimonides
compiled the 13 Jewish principles/articles of faith
Shemone Esre Berakhot
the 18 blessings
Kaddish
the prayer that concludes synagogue service
holy, sanctification
Kaddish literally means this
Todah
sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving in Jewish literature
Mizwot
commandments designed to realign the human and divine wills
it is true, I believe
"amen" means this
Praise the Lord
Alleluia means this