Jerusalem falls after Babylonian siege
Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Babylon and allows Israelites to return to their land
Cyrus the Great
the person that conquered Babylon and allowed the Jews to return to their land
4th c. B.C. - 1st c. A.D.
Hellenization of Judaism
Romans occupy Jerusalem
group of Jews that believed in a literal following of the law
group of Jews that were in charge of the Temple until its destruction
group of Jews that advocated a violent overthrow of Roman dominion and expected a warrior Messiah
Hebrew/Latin name for the Zealots
group of Jews that lived in a monastic desert community
the location where the Essenes lived
Dead Sea Scrolls
the Essenes were responsible for these recently found documents
date of the destruction of the Temple
Jewish rebellion against Roman rule leading to destruction of the temple
Roman emperor responsible for the destruction of the Temple
the only part of the temple that remains today
Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
Name and date of the council that restricted the rights of Jews
the Jewish name for the Holocaust
year the state of Israel was created for protection
late 1st - early 2nd c. A.D.
rabbis determine the Jewish canon
complete Hebrew bible
Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim
three parts of the Tanakh
first rabbinic commentary; codification of the "oral Torah"
Mishnah was finalized around this time
Rabbinic commentary on the Mishnah
Gemara was finished around this time
combination of Mishnah and Gemara; contained Rabbinic debates
literal meaning of Talmud
two categories of material in the Talmud
laws, precepts, how to live faithful to the Law
stories, homilies, interpretations of biblical passages
compiled the 13 Jewish principles/articles of faith
Shemone Esre Berakhot
the 18 blessings
the prayer that concludes synagogue service
Kaddish literally means this
sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving in Jewish literature
commandments designed to realign the human and divine wills
it is true, I believe
"amen" means this
Praise the Lord
Alleluia means this
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