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586 B.C.

Jerusalem falls after Babylonian siege

537 B.C.

Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Babylon and allows Israelites to return to their land

Cyrus the Great

the person that conquered Babylon and allowed the Jews to return to their land

4th c. B.C. - 1st c. A.D.

Hellenization of Judaism

63 B.C.

Romans occupy Jerusalem


group of Jews that believed in a literal following of the law


group of Jews that were in charge of the Temple until its destruction


group of Jews that advocated a violent overthrow of Roman dominion and expected a warrior Messiah


Hebrew/Latin name for the Zealots


group of Jews that lived in a monastic desert community


the location where the Essenes lived

Dead Sea Scrolls

the Essenes were responsible for these recently found documents

70 A.D.

date of the destruction of the Temple

66 A.D.

Jewish rebellion against Roman rule leading to destruction of the temple

General Titus

Roman emperor responsible for the destruction of the Temple

Western Wall

the only part of the temple that remains today

Fourth Lateran Council (1215)

Name and date of the council that restricted the rights of Jews


the Jewish name for the Holocaust


year the state of Israel was created for protection

late 1st - early 2nd c. A.D.

rabbis determine the Jewish canon


complete Hebrew bible

Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim

three parts of the Tanakh






first rabbinic commentary; codification of the "oral Torah"

200-250 A.D.

Mishnah was finalized around this time


Rabbinic commentary on the Mishnah

400-450 A.D.

Gemara was finished around this time


combination of Mishnah and Gemara; contained Rabbinic debates

instruction, learning

literal meaning of Talmud

Halakhah, Haggadah

two categories of material in the Talmud


laws, precepts, how to live faithful to the Law


stories, homilies, interpretations of biblical passages

Moses Maimonides

compiled the 13 Jewish principles/articles of faith

Shemone Esre Berakhot

the 18 blessings


the prayer that concludes synagogue service

holy, sanctification

Kaddish literally means this


sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving in Jewish literature


commandments designed to realign the human and divine wills

it is true, I believe

"amen" means this

Praise the Lord

Alleluia means this

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