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BIO 120 Exam 2 (chapters 7-11)
Terms in this set (40)
Describe DNA. How is it structured? What is it made of?
DNA: nucleic acid, information molecule, like a cookbook
1. Made of nucleotides
2. Nucleotide made up of sugar, phosphate and base
3. hook together to make sugar-phosphate backbone of every strand of DNA
4. bases pair up with opposite, matching bases on the other strand of DNA
5. 4 kinds of base pairs made up of adenine, thiamine, guanine, and cytosine.
(a always pairs with t and g always pairs with c)
6. two strands of DNA are linked together by weak hydrogen bonds and stacked like a ladder who's sides spiral around each other to make their famous double-helix shape
DNA vs. RNA
-Nucleotides have DEOXYribose sugar
-double stand helix
- Nucleotides have ACGT for bases
- Ribonucleic acid
- Nucleotides have risose sugar
- Single stand
- Has ACGU for bases
Nucleotides: RNA and DNA, makes nucleic acid. Nucleic acid is the "building blocks" which form hydrogen bonds or "base-pair" with select other nucleotides
Compose a complementary nucleotide sequence.
Detail where DNA is found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Describe chromosomes. How many chromosomes do humans have?
Humans have 23 chromosomes
1 egg with 23 and 1 sperm with 23 = zygote with 46 chromosomes
Describe what is the same and different about DNA in every organism.
Each chromosome is made up of genes. Each gene is different
Describe genes. What is an allele?
Genes: are the basic unit of heredity (the passing of traits from parent to offspring) and are a set of instructions to produce these traits
Allele: is a variant of a gene, two alleles for every gene (1 from mom and one from dad) could have the same allele from both or have different alleles from both
Describe gene expression. What is transcription and what is translation? Where does each process take place and what organelles/molecules are involved?
Describe the cell cycle. What are the 3 stages of interphase, and what happens in each?
A repeating series of events that include:
- Growth of the cell
- DNA synthesis
- Cell division
Interphase : Cell growth and preparation for division
1. Growth phase ((G1; Gap phase 1): cells grow rapidly, makes proteins needed for DNA replication, copies of many of its organelles and centrioles (cell spends mostly all its time in this phase)
2. Synthesis phase (S): cell's DNA is copied in the process of DNA replication
3. Growth phase 2 (G2; Gap phase 2): The cell makes final preparations to divide and rapidly grows and protein synthesis
Mitotic Phase: Cell division for growth
after cells grow to their maximum size, they divide into new cells
Define somatic and germ cells. How does cell division occur in each?
Mitosis: How the body cells divide (somatic)
Meiosis: How sex cells divide (sperm or egg) (gametes)
Gametes: are haploid cells meaning they only carry half the number of chromosomes. They come from germ cells in the testes or ovaries.
What makes gametes different from other eukaryotic cells?
Describe mitosis. What is its purpose? What are the 4 stages? What happens in each stage?
1. Prophase: chromatin condenses into chromosomes and the nuclear membrane breaks down. Centrioles move to opposite poles of the cell and spindles start to form between them.
2. Metaphase: The sister chromatids line up at the equator of the cell. Spindles attach to centromere.
3. Anaphase: The sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite ends of the cell by the shortening of the spindle fibers.
4. Telophase: chromosomes uncoil and form chromatin. The spindle also breaks down, and new nuclear membranes form.
Describe cytokinesis in animal and plant cells.
Cytokinesis: final stage of cell division and the cytoplasm splits in two and the cell divides
Describe how the cell cycle is regulated.
Discuss gametes and how egg and sperm combine to produce an individual with 46 chromosomes. How do identical and fraternal twins occur?
Identical twins: Monozygotic (MZ) twins. Single ovulated egg fertilized by one sperm, embryo splits in two
Fraternal: Dizygotic (DZ) twins. Two ovulated eggs fertilized by a different sperm
25% decrease in genotypic dissimilarity
50% decrease in allelic dissimilarity
Describe sexual differentiation in XX and XY individuals. Do all humans begin as female?
Describe meiosis in gamete cells. What is chromosomal crossover? How does crossover contribute to genetic variability?
Define DNA, Chromosome, Gene, Allele, Genotype, and Phenotype.
Define recessive, dominant, homozygous, and heterozygous.
Guess the parents gamete possibilities from their genotypes.
Discuss Mendel. Why is he considered the "father of genetics?"
Solve genetics problems.
Define incomplete dominance and give an example.
What are sex-linked traits? Describe what would occur f the gene is dominant or recessive and located on the X chromosome of the father or the mother.
Describe codominance and give an example.
Describe how multiple alleles may dictate a phenotype and give an example.
Describe continuous variation and give an example.
How can one gene have multiple effects? Give an example.
Describe DNA histone methylation and acetylation.
Discuss the video by BBC - "A Ghost in our DNA"
Describe chromosomal abnormalities.
Define karyotype. What are autosomal versus sex chromosomes?
Describe non-disjunction. What is trisomy 21? Trisomy 13? XXY? XO? XYY?
Describe deletion. What is cri du chat?
Describe duplication. What is 1q21.1 microduplication?
Describe inversion. What is Inversion of chromosome 9 inv(9)p12q13?
Describe translocation. What is the Philadelphia chromosome?
Describe single gene mutations. What is Huntington's disease?
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