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AP ch 8-9
The nervous system and the sensory
Terms in this set (139)
3 functions of the nervous system
Sensory (picking up info); integrative (interpreting sensory info to make decisions); motor (acting out the intergrative's decides action)
muscles and glands in the efferent pathway
2 divisions of the nervous system
CNS: organs are brain + spinal chord;
PNS: organs are ganglia + nerves (anything other than/outside of the CNS)
The ______ is further divided into the ______________ & the __________; further more the E/M (get em) is subdivided into the _________ (involuntary) & _______ (voluntary) nervous systems
PNS, afferent sensory pathway & efferent motor pathway; Autonomic & Somatic
The last divisions to note are the ______ (resting) + ______ (fight or flight)
Parasympathetic & sympathetic
The only cell in the body that can transmit an impulse is the?
Neuron (the conducting cell)
The other type of nerve cell "nerve glue" is non conductive and supports the Neuron
The ______ node to node jumping/firing in the presence of myelinated cells
Plays an important role in the regeneration of nerve fibers (nerve cells)
Integration happens at which of the neurons 3 parts?
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps in the myelin sheath
In the PNS myelin is made by?
There are ___ neuroglial cells, ____ are in the CNS while the remaining ___ are locates in the PNS.
6 total, 4 in CNS, 2 in PNS
The Neuroglia in the CNS are: __, ____, ____, & _____. What are their descriptions/functions?
Astrocytes: ⭐️ shaped, bind blood vessels to nerve & regulate fluid composition around neurons.
Ependymal: 🐼 🎋columnar like bamboo & circulate cerebrospinal fluid.
Microglia: small macrophages. Protection in response to inflammation.
Oligodendrocytes: long tentacles wrap around axons to form Myelin sheaths.
The Neuroglia in the PNS are: ____, & _____. What are their descriptions/functions?
Schwann cells: myelin on axons in the PNS
Satellite cells: support nerve cell bodies within ganglia
2 distinct characteristics of Neurons
Excitability - the ability to respond to stimuli (it can get a boner lol)
Conductivity - it can send an impulse (message) from one point to another
There are 3 types of neurons. Name:
Sensory, integrated, & motor
What is a Resting membrane; what is key for it to be such
When the membrane of a neuron (only cells that can conduct) is ready & waiting to receive an impulse. It is 🔑 that Na+ is on the outside & K+ is on the inside.
When the neuron receives its impulse (action potential) what happens first?
The stimulus alters the permeability of the neurons membrane, sodium channels open & Na+ goes into the cell (depolarization)
Sodium channels close & potassium channels open up causing
K+ leaves cell & the cell become repolarized
sodium-potassium pump & the ration it restores ___ in ___out
transports sodium ions out of the cell and transports potassium ions into the cell to restore resting conditions. 2 K+ in 3 Na+ out.
the law that the neuron either fires at 100% or not at all
What is the rapid sequence of events in response of a neuron to a threshold stimulus?
What types of neurons are located entirely within the CNS
the region of communication between neurons (or between a neuron and effector)
Membrane of the receiving neuron
Acetylcholine is a _____ in the axon terminal
List the 5 components of the reflex arc (conduction pathway) in order
Receptor (receiver of impulse)
Sensory Neuron (takes message from receptor & sends to CNS)
Center (message is processes & response is determined)
Motor neuron (takes response & sends it to the effector)
Effector (uses the response to act)
🔑: the reflex arc is like a one way street because the impulse can only travel one direction
Three layers of _____ surround the brain and spinal chord. (DAP)
Meninges; durameter, arachnoid, & piameter
D outer most, A middle, P inner most
Where on the brain does gray matter present? Why is it grey?
The cortex (outside) ; it is unmyelinated
The largest part of the brain _____ is made primarily of _____ matter
Cerebrum; white matter (myelinated)
The 2nd largest portion of the brain _______ has something called _______ _______ which form communication pathways to other parts of the CNS
The cerebellum; cerebellar peduncles (3 paired bundles of myelinated nerve fibers)
The Cerebrum is divided in two 2 _______ by a ________ fissure.
The corpus callosum is an arching band of white (myelinated) fibers that?
Connect the L,R hemispheres providing a communication pathway
2 Distincts features of the Cerebrum
Gryi (convulsions on the surface of the cerebrum)
Sulci (depressions/grooves separate gyri "depresses ppl are sulky)
The brain is divided into 4 parts
cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brainstem
Part of the cerebrum located under the frontal bone
Part of the cerebrum located under the occipital bone?
Each hemisphere (R,L) is divided into 5 lobes, 4 of which are named after the bones covering them
Frontal, parietal, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, insila (island of reil)
_________ fibers transmit impulses from one gurus to another within the same hemisphere
Transmit impulses from the cerebrum to other parts of the CNS
There are 4 (lobes) of the cerebral cortex (aka cerebrum) that host a total of 13 combined functional regions. These lobes are ______
Parietal (2) frontal (4) temporal (6) occipital (3)
The ______ lobe hosts the primary visual cortex & the visual association area
The occipital lobe.
Mrs bullen thought a carpet on the side of the road was a dead buffalo
Visual association area (located in the occipital lobe)
Parietal lobe hosts the Primary sensory cortex(________) & the somatosensory association area (_______)
Primary-receives input from skin/skeletal muscles
Somatosensory association area-this rags itchy like the tag in my yellow shirt. It makes the association between a memory & current sensory input
temporal lobe hosts auditory cortex & auditory association, olfactory, gustatory cortex, & wernickes
Auditory- hearing sounds auditory association -recognize the sounds, cry when you hear that song your boyfriend played while dumping you
Gustatory-different tastes (think about how Gaston on beauty in the beast ate so many eggs 🍳)
Wernickes- understanding spoken AND written language
Frontal lobe hosts the primary motor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex
Primary motor cortex allows skeletal muscle contraction.
Broca's programs and coordinates movements necessary to articulate words.
Prefrontal cortex judgement reasoning intelligence planning
18 year olds have yet to develop their
"White matter is on the outside and gray is on the inside" is true in reference to?
The Hypothalamus is in _______ section of the brain. The hypothalamus plays a key 🔑 roll in maintaining __________
Diencephalon. Below the thalamus.
7 functions of hypothalamus
Regulates endocrine system, autonomic (automatic/involuntary) nervous system, emotion, body temp, food intake, water intake, sleep cycles.
Region of the brain between the diencephalon & spinal cord is the _______. Which consists of 3 parts: _,____, ____, (hint mpm)
Brain stem; MPM midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
medulla oblongata can be damaged causing swelling. It's associated with the ______ magnum
3 vital centers of medulla oblongata that control visceral activities
Cardiac center, vasomotor, & respiratory
The respiratory center works with the ______ to regulate the rate rhythm & depth of breathing
The ______ center regulates blood pressure by affecting changes in blood vessel diameter
Vasomotor (Vaso means vessel)
________ Adjusts the heart rate and contractions strength to Meet the body's needs
The ______ Is where the nervous system and the endocrine system marry each other
The diencephalon is centrally located and includes three regions
Thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
________ Connect the cerebellum to the midbrain
Superior cerebellar peduncles
The cerebellum mediates subconscious contractions of skeletal muscle needed for coronation posture and balance.
Also smooth muscle movement rather than jerky Trimble in motion. When it is damaged movement such as running walking and riding become uncoordinated
________ Extends from the foramen magnum at the base of the school to the level of the first lumbar vertebrae.
_______ Extend beyond the end of the spinal cord down to the upper part of the sacrum. From there a fibrous cord pia matter, the _________ extends down to the coxes where it is anchored
Meninges; filum terminale
There are 26 vertebrae and ______ nerves
True or false: for every pair of spinal nerves there is a combination mix of both sensory and motor
What helps produce cerebrospinal fluid
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves broken up by cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal. How many are in each portion?
Cervical-8, thoracic-12, lumbar-five, sacral-five, and coccygeal-one.
This division of the autonomic nervous system requires a lot of energy
Sympathetic (fight or flight)
The involuntary visceral system that sends motor in pulses to the visceral organs
Autonomic nervous system
Functions of the autonomic nervous system are continuous without conscious effort and include:
Innervating smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. It is also concerned with heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and other visceral activities that work together to maintain homeostasis. Think vitals.
__________ Associated with epinephrine not to be confused with the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
Sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
I cause your pupils to dilate, stimulate sweat, give you goosebumps, increase your heart rate, dilate your bronchi and more. Who am I?
I may help save your life but you might shit yourself in the process. Who am I?
We chill all the time, I decrease your heart rate, construct your Broski, increased secretion of digestive enzymes, increased peristalsis, I can stretch your pupils, and I can track your bladder and open this winter, who am I?
You almost hit someone at a red light in your heart starts racing who am I?
You just ate a big lunch and you're relaxing on the couch who am I?
Senses and receptors come in 2 types
I allow you to feel touch, pain, pressure, proprioception, and temperature. I am located throughout your body. Who am I?
You don't have taste receptors on your knee you have taste receptors in your mouth what are taste receptors an example of?
For nerve impulses you have to have_______
The receptor of a neuron is called a
Sensory receptors that detect the presence of chemicals think of taste and smell in monitoring the concentration of certain chemicals in body fluids
Mechanism that allows the eye to focus at various distances
Sensory receptor that response to a bending of the cell; think of receptors for touch pressure hearing and equilibrium.
The one receptor that does not adapt; the pain receptor.
The five types of sense receptors
Chemo receptors, mechanoreceptors, nociceptors, Thermo receptors, photo receptors.
Unlike nociceptors, some sense receptors when they are continually stimulated undergo ________. (Aka decreased sensitivity)
When your patient Sara stinky comes into the room and everything smells bad but after a few hours of being with Sara stinky you stop smelling her you can thank me for having your back. Who am I?
There are three touch and pressure Mechano receptors:
Free nerve endings, meissners corpuscles (light touch), & pacinian (deep pressure)
The sense of position or orientation, think of which legs crossed over which under the table
Important mechano receptors for proprioception
Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles
These neurons have a long cilia that extent to the surface and project into the nasal cavity.
Pathway of light into the eye. ( Think CAPLVR)
Cornea to aqueous to pupil to lense to vitreous Humor to retina
Rods play an important role in your ability to see __________. The chemical they produce that helps you see in the dark is called ________
Light and dark; rhodosen
Cones help you perceive _______
_________ Is necessary for rhodopsin production. Think of rabbits eating carrots.
Nerve that sits behind the retina
Photo receptors are in the ________ (sixth of the pathway of light)
The four parts of the pathway of light that refract or bend light
Cornea, aqueous, lens, and vitreous humor
The third segment of the pathway of light is not a structure but is instead a space/hole
The region of the retina that produces the sharpest image is a depression called the
I am rich in cones and I mediate clear detail vision who am I?
Macula lutea (Think of pirates who have lots of loot, the pirates with lots of loot are rich in coins where as macula lutea is rich in cones)
When light rays hit a ________ surface they scatter or diverge
Concave (when cavemen see a light they scatter)
When light rays meet a convex surface they get close together or converge
Three regions of the ear
outer, middle, inner
The _______ Is attached to the pharynx through eustachian tube
Three unique structures of the inner ear
Semicircular Canal's, cochlea, vestibule
To nerves that go off to the temporal lobe
Vestibular nerve, and cochlear nerve. Think vestibulocochlear
I am shaped like a snail,My main purpose is hearing, I'm fluid filled, and inside me is the organ of Corti which is also for hearing. Who am I?
I start from the outside of the ear & the furthest I can go in is the tympanic membrane which portion of the ear am I?
I go from the oval to the Round. I house auditory ossicles and the auditory tube. Which portion of the ear am I?
I possess the organs for hearing and equilibrium which portion of the year am I?
Inner ear (on Lords of Dogtown Sid was always falling off his skateboard because he had the inner ear problem, you could also make a loud noise and he would be extremely alarmed.)
Summarize the Auditory pathway
Soundwaves vibrate tympanic membrane, then auditory ossicles, then oval window, Corti, impulse travels via cranial nerves, onto thalamus, then the lobe.
What structure is between the external ear in the middle ear?
What triggers an impulse on the hair cell of the organ of Corti?
The hair cells move against the tectorial membrane and bend
What three nerves move the eye?
Ocular motor, Trochlear, & abducens
What is the filum terminale?
anchors spinal cord to coccyx
What does the ciliary body do?
produces aqueous humor
fine hairs that extend from the taste receptors into taste pores, thereby connecting taste pores to taste receptors
sense of smell
The white portion of the eye is called the:
Structure that controls the amount of light entering the eye
Muscles of the iris
muscles of the iris control
two kinds of photoreceptors
rods and cones
This photo receptor is absent in the fovea centralis and grows increasingly present the further the distance it is from the fovea centralis
This photo receptor is primarily located in the fovea centralis
yellowish spot on the back of the retina; contains the fovea
tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision
The inner ear has three regions
semicircular canals, vestibule, cochlea
function of auditory ossicles
conduct vibrations to inner ear
Location of hearing receptors
cochlea/organ of corti
area of brain where optic nerve fibers cross
Location of visual cortex
Bulges for close vision, flattens for far vision
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
Controls the shape of the lens
Innermost tunic of the eye containing both rods and cones
blind spot where optic nerve exits the eye
Brown pigmented, vascular layer of tunic
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