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HED 450 CH 7: Theories and Models Commonly Used for Health Promotion Intervention
Terms in this set (94)
Set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of events or situations by specifying relations among variables in order to explain and predict the events of the situations.
3 major elements of a fully developed theory would explain:
[ characterized by 3 major elements]
1. Major factors that influence the phenomena of interest.
2. Relationship between these factors.
3. Conditions under which these relationships do or do not occur.
A composite, a mixture of ideas or concepts taken from any number of theories and used together.
Primary elements or building blocks of a theory.
A concept developed, created, or adopted for use with a specific theory (predicted barrier).
The operational (practical use) form of a construct (how a construct will be measured).
What are the 2 groups of theories and models?
Planning models and Behaviour Change Theories (Change Process Theory).
What are planning models?
Used for planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs.
What are behaviour change theories?
Specify the relationship among casual processes operating both within and across levels of analysis (help explain how change takes place). Interventions should be tailored for the population (most appropriate theories and models will be used).
What are the ecological perspective - levels of prevention?
What is the Intrapersonal Level of Ecological Perspective - Levels of Prevention?
Individual characteristics that influence behaviour, such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personality traits.
What is the Interpersonal Level of Ecological Perspective - Levels of Prevention?
Interpersonal processes and primary groups, including family, friends, and peers that provide social identity, support, and role definition.
What is the Community Level of Ecological Perspective - Levels of Prevention?
Institutional Factors, Community Factors, Public Policy, Physical Environment, Culture.
What are community level - Institutional Factors?
Rules, regulations, policies, and informal structures that may constrain or promote recommended behaviours.
What are community level - Community Factors?
Social network and norms, or standards, that exist as formal or informal among individuals, groups, and organizations.
What are community level - Public Policy?
Local, state, and federal policies and laws that regulate or support health actions and practices for disease prevention, early detection, control, and management.
What are community level - Physical Environment?
Natural and built environment.
What are community level - Culture?
Shared beliefs, values, behaviours, and practices of a population.
What is the socio-ecological approach?
Human behaviour shapes and is shaped by multiple levels of influences.
Behaviour Change Theories.
What is social context?
Defined as the sociocultural forces that shape people's day-to-day experiences and that directly and indirectly affect health and behaviour.
What is the central role of the socio-ecological approach?
Interventions must be applied at multiple levels of influence to achieve changes in health behaviour.
What are the 7 levels of prevention for the socio-ecological approach?
1. Interpersonal or individual factors
2. Interpersonal factors
3. Institutional or organizational factors
4. Community factors
5. Public policy factors
6. Physical environment
What is continuum theories?
Behaviour change theories that identify variables that influence actions and combine them into a single equation that predict the likelihood of action.
What are stage theories?
Comprised of an ordered set of categories into which people can be classified and which identifies factors that could induce movement from one category to the next.
What are the 4 principle elements of a stage theory?
1. A category system to define the stages
2. An ordering of stages
3. Common barriers to change facing people in different stages
4. Different barriers to change facing people in difference stages
What are Intrapersonal Level Theories?
This group of theories focuses on factors within the individual such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, self-concept, feeling, past experiences, motivation, skills, and behaviours.
What are Stimulus Response Theories?
The temporal association between a behaviour and an immediately following reward is sufficient to increase the probability that the behaviour will be repeated.
What are the 2 categories for environmental consequences of the Stimulus Response (SR) Theory?
What is Reinforcement?
Event that follows behaviour that increases probability for the behaviour to be repeated.
What is Positive Reinforcement?
Adding something. You get a reward.
What is Negative Reinforcement?
Taking away. Removal of something from the situation.
Negative reinforcer or aversive stimulus.
What is punishment?
Decreases the frequency of the behaviour.
What is Negative Punishment?
Removing positive reinforcer.
What is Positive Punishment?
Presenting a negative reinforcer (or aversive stimulus).
What is the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)?
Successful performance of the behaviour depends not only on a favourable intention but also on a sufficient level of behavioural control (addresses the problems of incomplete volitional control).
What is a Value-Expectancy Theory?
Developed to explain how individuals behaviours are influences by beliefs and attitudes.
What type of theory is the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)?
What is Intention?
Indication of a person's readiness to which performance of the behaviour is positively or negatively valued.
What is Attitude Toward the Behaviour?
Degree to which performance of the behaviour is positively or negatively valued.
What is Subjective Norm?
The percieved social pressure to engage or not engage in a behaviour.
What is Perceived Behavioural Control?
Refers to people's perceptions of their ability to perform a given behaviour.
What are the 3 classes of factors that Health Belief Model (HBM) hypothesizes that health-related actions depends on in simultaneous occurrence?
1. The existence of sufficient motivation (or health concern) to make issues salient or relevant
2. The belief one is susceptible to a serious health problem (perceived threat)
3. Belief that following a particular health recommendation would be beneficial in reducing the perceived threat (benefits are worth cost (perceived barriers))
What is the Health Belief Model (HBM)?
Theorizes that for behaviour change to succeed, people must feel threatened by their current behavioural patterns.
What kind of theory is the Health Belief Model (HBM)?
What is the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT)?
Theorizes that people make a cognitive assessment of whether there is a threat to their health based on inputs from environmental sources of information and from intrapersonal sources.
What is elaboration?
Amount of cognitive processing (thought) that a person puts into receiving messages.
What are peripheral route processes?
Involve minimal thought and rely on superficial cues or mental shortcuts about issue-relevant information as primary means for attitude change.
What is the Information-Motivation-Behavioural (IMB) Skills Model?
Used for HIV and AIDS prevention. IMB believes the constructs of information, motivation, and behavioural skills are fundamental determinants of preventative behaviour.
What is the Transtheoretical Model (TTM)?
A framework for understanding how individuals and populations progress toward adopting and maintaining health behaviour change for optimal health.
What are the core constructs of the TTM?
Stage of change, process of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and temptation.
What is the stage construct of The Transtheoretical Model (TTM)?
Core construct of the model. Categories of change along a continuum of motivational readiness to change a problem behaviour:
What is the Processes of Change of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM)?
Covert and overt activities that people use to progress through the stages.
What is Decision Balance of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM)?
Pros and cons of behavioural change.
What is self-efficacy of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM)?
People's confidence in their ability to perform a certain behaviour or task.
What is Temptation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM)?
Reflects the converse of self-efficacy.
What is the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM)?
Explains how people come to decision to take action and how they translate that decision to action (deliberate changes).
What are the 7 stages of Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM)?
3. Deciding about actions (deciding about actions)
4. Decide to Act
6. Behaviour maintained
What are Interpersonal Level Theories?
Assume individuals exist within and are influenced by a social environment. The opinions, thoughts, behaviour, advice and support of people surrounding an individual influence his or her feelings and behaviour, and the individual has a reciprocal effect on those people (social relationships can be a powerful influence on health and health behaviours).
What is the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)?
Reinforcement contributes to learning, but reinforcement along with an individual's expectations of the consequences of behaviour determine the behaviour.
What are the 3 types of reinforcement of the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)?
1. Direct Reinforcement
2. Vicarious Reinforcement
What is Direct Reinforcement?
Group facilitator who provides verbal feedback to participants for a job well done.
What is Vicarious Reinforcement?
Observational Learning or Social Modelling.
Have the participants observe someone else being reinforced for behaving in an appropriate manner.
What is Self-Reinforcement?
Participants would keep records of their own behaviour, and when the behaviour was performed in an appropriate manner - they would reinforce or reward themselves.
What is Behavioural Capacity?
If individuals are to perform specific behaviours, they must know first what the behaviours are and then how to perform them.
What are Expectations?
Ability of human beings to think, and anticipate certain things to happen in certain situations.
What are Expectancies?
Values that the individual place on an expected outcome.
What is self-regulation or self-control?
Individuals may gain control of their own behaviour through monitoring and adjusting it.
What are the 6 methods for achieving self-regulation?
2. Setting both incremental and long-term goals
3. Obtaining feedback on the quality of behaviour and how it can be improved
4. Rewarding self for meeting goals (self-reinforcement)
5. Self-instructing both before and as the behaviour is being performed
6. Gaining social-support for the behaviour
What are the 4 ways people can meet self-efficacy?
1. Through performance attainment (mastery of task)
2. Through vicarious experience (observing others)
3. As a result of verbal persuasion (suggestions from others)
4. Through emotional arousal (interpreting one's emotional state)
What are Efficacy Expectations?
Peoples competency feelings.
What are Outcome Expectations?
People may not feel the reward (reinforcement) of performing the behaviour is great enough for them.
What is Collective efficacy?
Groups or organizations being efficacious is collective efficacy.
What is Emotional-coping response?
For people to learn, they must be able to with sources of anxiety that may surround behaviour.
What is reciprocal determinism?
Unlike SR theory - there is an interaction among the person, behaviour, and the environment. People can shape the environment and the environment can shape them.
What is Locus of Control?
Person's history of positive and negative reinforcement across a variety of situations shape a belief as to whether or not a person's own action leads to those reinforcements.
What is the Social Network Theory?
Theorizes that the structure, processes, and functions of social relationships can impact health.
What does the Social Network Theory consider when assessing a social network?
1. Complexity vs. marginality of individuals in the network
2. Reciprocity of relationships
3. Complexity or intensity of the relationships in the network
4. Homogeneity or diversity of people in the network
5. Subgroups, cliques, and linkage
6. Communication patterns in the network
What is Social Capital Theory?
The influence of social capitals on individuals health.
What is Social Capital?
The relationships and structure in a community, such as civic participation, network, norms of reciprocity, and trust, that promote cooperation of mutual benefits.
What are Community Level Theories?
The group of theories explore function and how to mobilize community member and organizations (applies to the last 5 levels from the ecological perspective: institutional, community, public policy, physical environment, and culture).
What is Diffusion Theory?
Explanation of the spread of innovation in a population.
What are the 5 stages of the Diffusion Theory?
1. Knowledge (acquision of the innovation)
2. Persuasion (i.e. attitude concerning the innovation)
3. Decision (about adopting or not adopting)
4. Implementation (beginning to use the innovation)
5. Confirmation (commitment to use, continue to use, or discontinue of the innovation)
What are Innovators?
Individuals who fall in the portion of the curve to the left -2SD from the mean.
2-3% of priority population.
They would become involved in the program just because they had heard about it and wanted to be first.
Venturesome, independent, daring.
Want to do things first.
What are Early Adopters?
Those represented on the curve between -2 and -1 SD.
14% of the population.
They are not the first to sign up. They wait till innovators are already involved to make sure the innovation is useful. Early adopters are respected brothers in the social system. They are looked upon as opinion leaders.
What is Early Majority and Late Majority?
Fall between -1 SD and the mean and between the mean of +1 SD.
34 % of the population.
They are interested in HP program but need external motivation to become involved.
What are the Laggards?
Greater than +1 SD.
Not interested in innovation.
They are the last to join.
They do not know much about new things.
What is the Community Readiness Model (CRM)?
The degree to which community is willing and prepared to take action on an issue.
What are the 9 stages of the Community Readiness Model (CRM)?
1. No awareness: raise awareness of the issue.
2. Denial: Raise awareness that the problem or issue exists in the community.
3. Vague awareness: raise awareness that the community can do something.
4. Preplanning: raise awareness with the concrete ideas to combat condition.
5. Preparation: Gather existing info to help plan strategies
6. Initiation: provide community-specific information
7. Stabilization: stabilize efforts/programs
8. Confirmation/expansion: expand and enhance service
What are the 5 key dimensions of community readiness?
Community knowledge of efforts
Community knowledge of the issue
What is relapse?
Breakdown or failure in a person's attempt to change or modify a particular (health) behaviour.
What is lapse?
Single slip or mistake.
What is Recidivism?
Problems with participants in exercise and diet, oral health care treatment, weight loss, and smoking cessation programs.
What is relapse prevention?
A self-control program designed to help individuals to anticipate and cope with the problem of relapse in the habit-changing process.
What are the 2 categories of high-risk situations?
1. Intrapersonal: negative emotional status, negative physical states, etc.)
2. Interpersonal: social pressures, emotional states, etc.)
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