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Medical Terminology Chapter 7

STUDY
PLAY
CHAPTER 7
URINARY SYSTEM
MEDICAL SPECIALTIES
...
Urology
diagnosis and treatment of the male urinary and reproductive systems and the female urinary system
Urologists
physicians who specialize in clinical treatment of disorders of the female and the male urinary systems.
Nephrology
diagnosis and management of kidney disease, kidney transplantation, and dialysis therapies
Nephrologists
specialize in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease, kidney transplantation, and dialysis therapies.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW
...
Reabsorption
process in which other essential substances are reabsorbed into the bloodstream
Homeostasis
stable internal environment
1.
WORD ELEMENTS
Cyst/o, vesic/o
bladder
Glomerul/o
glomerulus
Meat/o
opening, meatus
Nephr/o, ren/o
kidney
Pyel/o
renal pelvis
Ur/o, urin/o
urine, urinary tract
Ureter/o
ureter
Urethr/o
urethra
-emia
blood condition
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specific)
-lysis
separation; destruction; loosening
-pathy
disease
-pexy
fixation (of an organ)
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
-tripsy
crushing
-uria
urine
1.1.
SECTION REVIEW
2.
KIDNEYS
Kidney(s)
primary structural units responsible for urine formation.
Renal cortex
outer layer of the kidney
Renal medulla
inner layer of the kidney
Renal artery
blood enters the kidneys through the ___.
Renal vein
blood leaves the kidneys through the ___.
Nephron
each ___ is designed to filter urea and other waste products effectively from the blood.
-ectomy
excision, removal
-tomy
incision
-tome
instrument to cut
2.1.
SECTION REVIEW
-lith/o
stone, calculus
Nephr/o, Ren/o
kidney
Scler/o
hardening; sclera (white of the eye)
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specific)
-megaly
enlargement
-osis
abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
-pathy
disease
-pexy
fixation (of an organ)
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
-rraphy
suture
-tome
instrument to cut
-tomy
incision
Dia-
through, across
Poly-
many, much
Supra-
above, excessive; superior
3.
URETERS, BLADDER, URETHRA
Ureters
when urin is formed it is conveyed from each kidney through the ____.
Urinary bladder
when urin is formed it is conveyed from each kidney through the ureters and stored in the ____.
Urethra
when urin is formed it is conveyed from each kidney through the ureters and stored in the urinary bladder until it is expelled from the body through the ___ and urinary meatus.
Urinary meatus
when urin is formed it is conveyed from each kidney through the ureters and stored in the urinary bladder until it is expelled from the body through the urethra and ___.
3.1.
SECTION REVIEW
Aden/o
gland
Carcin/o
cancer
Cyst/o, Vesic/o
bladder
Enter/o
intestine (usually small intestine)
Pyel/o
renal pelvis
Rect/o
rectum
Ureter/o
ureter
Urethr/o
urethra
-ectomy
excision, removal
-ectasis
dilation, expansion
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specific)
-itis
inflammation
-lith
stone, calculus
-megaly
enlargement
-oma
tumor
-pathy
disease
-plasty
surgical repair
-rrhaphy
suture
-scope
instrument for examining
-tomy
incision
4.
NEPHRON STRUCTURE
Renal cortex
outer layer of the kidney
Renal medulla
inner layer of the kidney
Glomerulus
a tiny ball of coiled, intertwined capillaries
Collecting tubule
conveys newly formed urine to the renal pelvis where it is excreted to the kidneys
Bowman capsule
capsule that surrounds and encloses the glomerulus
4.1.
SECTION REVIEW
Cyst/o, Vesic/o
bladder
Cyt/o
cell
Erythr/o
red
Glomerul/o
glomerulus
Hemat/o
blood
Leuk/o
white
Nephr/o, Ren/o
kidney
Olig/o
scanty
Pyel/o
renal pelvis
Py/o
pus
Scler/o
hardening; sclera (white of the eyes)
Ureter/o
ureter
Urethr/o
urethra
Ur/o
urine
-cele
swelling, hernia
-cyte
cell
-ist
specialist
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
a-, an-
without, not
intra-
in, within
poly-
many, much
5.
ABBREVIATIONS
ARF
acute renal failure
BNO
bladder neck obstruction
BPH
benign prostatic hyperplasia; benign prostatic hypertrophy
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
CRF
chronic renal failure
CT
computer tomography
Cysto
cystoscopy
DRE
digital rectal examination
ED
erectile dysfunction; emergency department
ESRD
end-stage renal disease
ESWL
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
EU
excretory utography
IVP
intravenous pyelogram
IVU
intravenous urogram; intravenous urography
KUB
kidney, ureter, bladder
PKD
polycystic kidney disease
PSA
prostate-specific antigen
RP
retrograde pyelography
TURP
transurethral resection of the prostate
UA
Urinalysis
US
Ultrasonography, ultrasound
UTI
urinary tract infection
VCUG
voiding cystourethrogram; voiding cystourethrography
6.
ADDITIONAL MEDICAL TERMS
6.1.
SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND DISEASES
Azoturia
increase of nitrogenous substances, especially urea, in urine
Dieuresis
increased formation and secretion of urine
Dysuria
painful or difficult urination, symptomatic of cystitis and other urinary tract conditions
End-stage renal disease
kidney disease that has advanced to the point that the kidneys can no longer adequately filter the blood and, ultimately, requires dialysis or renal transplantation for survival; also called chronic renal failure.
Enuresis
involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control
Hypospadias
abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis
Interstitial nephritis
condition associated with pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue that may be primary or due to a toxic agent, such as a drug or chemical, which results in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment in renal function
Renal hypertension
high blood pressure that results from kidney disease
Uremia
elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood, as occurs in renal failure; also called azotemia
Wilms tumor
malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in young children, usually before age 5
6.2.
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
laboratory test that measures the amount of urea (nitrogenous waste product) in the blood and demonstrates the kidney's ability to filter urea from the blood for excretion in urine
Computed tomography (CT)
radiographic technique that uses a narrow beam of x-rays that rotates in a full arc around the patient to acquire multiple views of the body that a computer interprets to produce cross-sectional images of that body part
Kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB)
radiographic examination to determine the location, size, shape, and malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
Pyelography
radiographic study of the kidney, ureters, and usually the bladder after injection of a contrast agent
Intravenous pyelography (IVP)
radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract; also called intravenous urography (IVU) or excretory urography (EU)
Retrograde pyelography (RP)
radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope directly into the bladder and ureters using small-caliber catheters
Renal scan
nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance that is injected intravenously and concentrates in the kidney
Urinalysis
physical, chemical, and microscopic evaluation of urine
Voiding cystourethrography
radiography of the bladder and urethra after filling the bladder with a contrast medium and during the process of voiding urine
6.3.
MEDICAL AND SURGICAL PROCEDURES
Dialysis
mechanical filtering process used to cleanse blood of high concentrations of metabolic waste products, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly
Hemodialysis
process of removing excess fluids and toxins from the blood by continually shunting (diverting) the patient's blood from the body in to a dialysis machine for filtering, and then returning the clean blood to the patient's body via tubes connected to the circulatory system
Peritoneal dialysis
dialysis in which the patient's own peritoneum is used as the dialyzing membrane
Renal transplantation
organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage renal disease; also called kidney transplantation.
6.4.
SECTION REVIEW
7.
CHAPTER REVIEW
7.1.
WORD ELEMENTS SUMMARY
7.1.1.
COMBINING FORMS
Cyst/o, vesic/o
bladder
Glomerul/o
glomerulus
Nephr/o, ren/o
kidney
Pyel/o
renal pelvis
Ureter/o
ureter
Urethr/o
urethra
Aden/o
gland
Carcin/o
cancer
Enter/o
intestine (usually small intestine)
Erythro/o
red
Gastr/o
stomach
Hemat/o
blood
Hepat/o
liver
Lith/o
stone, calculus
Noct/o
night
Olig/o
scanty
Py/o
pus
Rect/o
rectum
Sclera/o
hardening; sclera (white of the eye)
Ur/o, urin/o
urine
Ven/o
vein
7.1.2.
SUFFIXES
-ectomy
excision, removal
-pexy
fixation (of an organ)
-plasty
surgical repair
-rrhaphy
suture
-stomy
forming of an opening (mouth)
-tome
instrument to cut
-tomy
incision
-tripsy
crushing
-algia, -dynia
pain
-cele
hernia, swelling
-cyte
cell
-ectasis
dilation, expansion
-edema
swelling
-emesis
vomiting
-grade
to go
-gram
record, writing
-graphy
process of recording
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specific)
-itis
inflammation
-lith
stone, calculus
-logist
specialist in the study of
-logy
study of
-megaly
enlargement
-oma
tumor
-osis
abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
-pathy
disease
-pepsia
digestion
-phagia
swallowing, eating
-phobia
fear
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
-rrhea
discharge. Flow
-scope
instrument for examining
-uria
urine
-al, -ic, -ous
pertaining to
-ia
condition
-ist
specialist
7.1.3.
PREFIXES
a-, an-
without, not
dys-
bad; painful; difficult
in-
in, not
intra-
in, within
poly-
many, much
retro-
backward, behind
supra-
above, excessive; superior
7.2.
WORD ELEMENTS REVIEW
7.3.
SPELLING
Vesicocele
V-E-S-I-C-O-C-E-L-E
Pyeloplasty
P-Y-E-L-O-P-L-A-S-T-Y
Ureterostenosis
U-R-E-T-E-R-O-S-T-E-N-O-S-I-S
Nephroptosis
N-E-P-H-R-O-P-T-O-S-I-S