About _____ of the world's population cannot afford most of the products advertised on American, Japanese, and European television.
What company ran a government-approved-and-regulated monopoly for more than a hundred years until its breakup in the mid-1980's?
Consumers communicate their preferences immediately through ______.
Disney's partnership with ________ led to a series of computer-animated blockbusters.
Disney's practice of _____ allows it to promote its feature length movies across many media platforms.
Having _____ means having the power to decide what types of media great created and distributed.
How might a company subvert antitrust laws?
operate their monopoly locally
Most media companies have avoided monopoly charges by _______.
operating their monopoly locally
One of the greatest concerns about a global economic village is _________.
cultural disconnection for people whose standards of living are not routinely portrayed in contemporary media
Cultural Imperialism can be described as ____
one style dominating the global market
Why did television begin niche marketing?
to target consumers whose buying habits were not stable or predictable
The 1990's TV phenomenon Baywatch went into the first run _____ after being cancelled by NBC.
The acceptance of dominant values in a culture by those subordinate to those who hold power is called ______.
The practice of increasing the production levels of a product to reduce the cost of each item is known as _________.
T/F An oligopoly occurs in the media economy when a few firms dominate the industry.
T/F The Authoritarian Theory of media economics worked well in Colonial America.
T/F In the United States, our media primarily uses the Social Responsibility Theory of media economics.
T/F Two revenue streams for the media industry are direct payment (sales) and indirect payment (advertising).
T/F On-line classified advertising sites like Craigslist, Monster & Ebay have significantly cut into the profitability of newspapers.
T/F Apple's iTunes store does not sell a lot of digital music downloads.
What term refers to cultural research that focuses on how people use and interpret cultural content?
uses and gratifications model
Which of the following focuses on how people make meaning, apprehend reality, and order experience through their use of cultural symbols in the media?
During what time period did Walter Lippmann and others develop more scientific approaches to mass media research?
late 1920s and 1930s
Which of the following is an example of public opinion research?
Habermas defines the public sphere as _________.
a space for critical public debate
How did a study about the impact of the War of The Worlds radio broadcast undermine the hypodermic-needle model?
they found the radio listeners reacted out of collective panic, not out of gullible belief in anything transmitted through the media
Minimal effects researchers argue that _______.
people generally engage in selective exposure and selective retention with regard to the media
Polls conducted during political elections are examples of ______.
The ________, also called the magic bullet theory, attributes powerful effects to the mass media.
What term refers to the idea that when the media fixate on a particular event or issue, they decide the major topic of discussion for individuals and society?
Research post-World War I referred to _____ as "partisan appeal based on half-truth and devious manipulation of communication channels".
The Payne Fund Studies emerged from______.
a concern about the effort of movies on the youth
The _______ enabled researchers to develop inventories, cataloguing how people employ the media.
uses and gratifications model
The rise of commercial radio led to the first ________.
What developed through the efforts of advertisers and product companies?
What term refers to the idea that the mass media determine the major topics of discussion for individuals and society?
What was a major inadequacy of traditional scientific research, as pointed by the Frankfurt School?
It reduced large cultural questions to verifiable categories.
When James Carey defined communication as "a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed" he was talking about the relationship between communication and ________.
Which of the following examine the interconnections among economic interests, political power, and how that power is used?
political economy studies
Which of the following is a problem with content analysis research?
It is basically descriptive and does not measure the effects of media.
Which of the following is a problem with experiments?
Subjects might act differently in a lab setting than they would in everyday surroundings. Most experiments are performed on college students, who are not representative of the general public. They cannot predict long-term results in the real world. The results are not necessarily applicable to a larger population.
Which of the following is an accurate polling method?
none of the options are correct
Which of the following is/are a form of cultural studies research?
textual analysis audience studies political economy studies
T/F Propaganda Analysis is the study of how governments used propaganda to advance war efforts.
T/F When conducting media research, a pseudo-poll yields highly reliable information.
T/F The Payne Fund studies analyzed the affect of movies on young children in Ohio.
T/F the biggest advantage to a content analysis is that it measures media effects.
T/F Selective Exposure and Selective Retention are key components in the Minimal Effects Model of media research.
During the late 1960s, Jack Valenti established ________.
the Motion Picture Production Code
Section 315 of the 1934 Communications Act mandates that _________.
during elections broadcast stations must provide equal opportunities and response time for qualified political candidates
In which case did the Supreme Court rule that a newspaper had the right to publish what it chose?
Which popular silent film actor was made a scapegoat in the early 1920s after a series of scandals rocked Hollywood?
How did the movie industry respond to the formation of community review boards and the deteriorating economic conditions of the Great Depression?
it formed its own self regulation boards and standards
In Mutual v. Ohio, the Supreme Court ruled that motion pictures were ________.
not included in the First Amendment
In opposition to gag rules ______ laws have favored the First Amendment rights of reports, protecting them from having to reveal their sources for controversial information used in news stories.
In response to to the 1920's scandal, the movie industry formed the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA) in order to ______.
smooth out problems between the public and the movie industry
Reporters who print or broadcast statements made in court are granted ________.
The Motion Picture Production Code specifically prohibited the production of movies that encouraged the audience to sympathize with what?
Sin Evil Crime Wrong-doing
After WikiLeaks released confidential diplomatic cables, the US Justice Department contemplated charging Julian Assange, the founder, with violating what laws?
1917 Espionage Act
The ______ rating has not proved commercially viable, and distributors avoid releasing films with the rating.
What did antismoking activist John Banzhaf invoke to force cigarette advertising off television?
The Fairness Doctrine
What did the Communications Act of 1934 do?
mandated that radio broadcasters operate in "the public interest, convenience, and necessity"
What did the FCC's net neutrality rules do?
requiring that wired broadband users provide the same access to all Internet services and content
What is the difference between slander and libel?
slander: defamation of character in spoken expression libel: the defamation of character in written expression
What is the purpose of shield laws?
protecting reporters from having to reveal their sources for controversial information used in news stories.
What legally protects the rights of authors and producers to their published or unpublished works?
Which court case set the contemporary definition of obscenity?
Miller v. California
Which motion picture rating was appropriated as a promotional tool by the pornography industry?
Why did the government outlaw transportation of boxing movies across state lines?
Because a black boxer (Jack Johnson) was heavily featured in the boxing movies and perceived as a threat to some in the white community.
T/F Alien and Sedition laws have proven to be effective in the United States and are continued to be used today.
T/F Near vs. Minnesota was a landmark case that defined what power the government has when it comes to "prior restraint" of publications.
T/F The Pentagon papers incident was important in media law because it was the first time in America's history that the government was successful in preventing a newspaper from publishing specific information.
T/F In the case of FCC vs. Pacifica Foundation, the key issue was obscenity vs. indecency.
T/F The five freedoms guaranteed by the First Amendment are: Press, Religion, Choice, Speech, and Petition.