Unfinished Nation Chapter 19

James A. Garfield
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(1831-1881) He was remembered as one of the four "lost presidents" after the civil war. He was elected to the Ohio Senate in 1859 as a Republican. During the secession crisis, he advocated coercing the seceding states back into the Union. As President, he strengthened Federal authority over the New York Customs House. Less than four months of taking office in 1881, he was assassinated. His assassination led to the Pendleton Civil Service Reform of 1883.
the twenty-third President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. He had previously served as a senator from Indiana. His administration is best known for a series of legislation including the McKinley Tariff and federal spending that reached one billion dollars. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress" and defeated the GOP in the 1890 mid-term elections, as well as defeating Harrison's bid for reelection in 1892. He is to date the only president from Indiana.
alliance of Farmers founded by Oliver H. Kelley in 1867 dedicated to bringing farmers together to learn new agric. technologies to keep up with the times, and to create a sense of community for them. Set up their own production enterprises and cooperated with the mail-order business. Controlled legis. in some states. had 800k members at one point and strongest in south and midwest, declined due to suppression by the courts and inadequate leadership.
People's PartyAnother name for the Populists. They campaigned in the election of 1892; they nominated James B. Weaver as their candidate. They wanted to bring together the aggrieved workers from across the nation, but had support primarily in the West.Populism*A political philosophy supporting the rights and power of the people in their struggle against the privileged elite.Panic of 1893Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.Pendleton Act1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasonsSilver questionPopulist stood for silver, mended with Democratic Party. 50 cents on Dollar, help inflate currency to get farmers out of debt."bimetallism"a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by stated amounts of two metals (usually gold and silver) with values set at a predetermined ratio"Free silver"*political movement to inflate currency by government issuance of $16 of silver for every $1 of gold in circulation; it was supported by farmers, who sought to counter declining crop prices and increase the money supply. It became a symbol of liberating poor farmers from the grasp of wealthy easterners.William McKinley25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchistWilliam Jennings BryanUnited States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)"Cross of Gold" speech*An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.Gold Standard ActSigned by McKinley in 1900 and stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation.Alfred Thayer Mahana United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890The Influence of Sea Power Upon History*an influential treatise on naval warfare written in 1890 by Alfred Thayer Mahan. It details the role of sea power throughout history and discusses the various factors needed to support a strong navy.Hawaiian overthrow(535-38) Islands of Hawaii were important way station for American ships in China trade. Arrival of merchants, missionaries, and planters ruined traditional Hawaiian society. 1898 Congress approved treaty of annexationPago PagoSamoa,1878 - The U.S. gained the strategic port Pago Pago in Samoa for use in refueling U.S. warships overseas. It was part of building an international military presence.Cuban revoltA Nationalist-initiated conflict broke out in Cuba in 1895, the Spanish, remembering the lengthy Ten Years' War, sent 200,000 troops to Cuba. The Cuban insurrectos responded by wrecking Spanish property in hopes that the Spanish would leave, or at least hoping for US intervention (since the US had significant economic investment in Cuba). The insurrectos directed their destructive rampage at both sugar mills and sugar fields."yellow press"also called yellow journalism, a term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time of the Spanish American war. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolph Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths.William Randolph Hearst*A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow journalism."Joseph Pulitzer*He used yellow journalism in competition with Hearst to sell more newspapers. He also achieved the goal of becoming a leading national figure of the Democratic Party.The MaineAn explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havanna crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain."A splendid little war"The ambassador to England wrote to his friend, Teddy Roosevelt, with these words because of low casualties in the fight against SpainCommodore George DeweyAdmiral of the United States Navy and best known for his victory during the Spanish - American WarBattle of Manila BayMarked the end of the wooden navy, when the more powerful American Steel Navy destroys the entire Spanish Wooden Navy in one single battle.Theodore Roosevelt1858-1919. 26th President. Increased size of Navy, "Great White Fleet". Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war. Later arbitrated split of Morocco between Germany and France.Rough RidersThe First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixure of Ivy League athletes and western frontiermen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.Puerto RicoA commonwealth , a freely associated part of the U.S. Help was given here like in Cuba.Jones Act1916, Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.Anti-imperialist League*objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900Platt Amendment*Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into troubleThe Philippine WarAmerican military campaign that suppressed the movement for Philippine independence after the Spanish-American war; America's death toll was over 4,000 and the Philippines' was far higher.Emilio Aguinaldo*Filipino General - helped US take Philipines during Spanish-American war - helped Philippines gain freedom from USJohn HaySecretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canalOpen Door Policy*A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.Boxer Rebellion1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.Elihu RootSecretary of War under Roosevelt, he reorganized and monderized the U.S. Army. Later served as ambassador for the U.S. and won the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize.