# Unfinished Nation Chapter 19

James A. Garfield
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(1831-1881) He was remembered as one of the four "lost presidents" after the civil war. He was elected to the Ohio Senate in 1859 as a Republican. During the secession crisis, he advocated coercing the seceding states back into the Union. As President, he strengthened Federal authority over the New York Customs House. Less than four months of taking office in 1881, he was assassinated. His assassination led to the Pendleton Civil Service Reform of 1883.
the twenty-third President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. He had previously served as a senator from Indiana. His administration is best known for a series of legislation including the McKinley Tariff and federal spending that reached one billion dollars. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress" and defeated the GOP in the 1890 mid-term elections, as well as defeating Harrison's bid for reelection in 1892. He is to date the only president from Indiana.
alliance of Farmers founded by Oliver H. Kelley in 1867 dedicated to bringing farmers together to learn new agric. technologies to keep up with the times, and to create a sense of community for them. Set up their own production enterprises and cooperated with the mail-order business. Controlled legis. in some states. had 800k members at one point and strongest in south and midwest, declined due to suppression by the courts and inadequate leadership.