199 terms

USJ 2018-2019 - Q3 Week 6 Science Vocabulary

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Physical Change
- A usually reversible change in the physical properties of a substance such as size or shape: (ex. Water freezing into ice)
Wind Energy
- the process by which wind is used to generate electricity (ie. windmills)
Convection-
The transfer of heat by the movement of a liquid or gas.
Inclined Plane
-a ramp is an example of this.
Motion
the change in position of an object
Speed
- A measure of how fast something is moving. How far an object can go in a certain amount of time. Distance divided by time.
Weight
- The amount of gravitational force on the matter of an object.
Inertia (Newton's First Law)
-The tendency of a moving object to stay in motion or a resting object to stay still is inertia.
Laws of Motion
-Three laws formulated by Sir Isaac Newton, the describe how objects move in relation to the forces acting on them.
Acceleration (Newton's Second Law)
-Acceleration is the rate at which an object changes its velocity. An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity.
Air resistance
-The force of friction on a vehicle as it moves through the air.
conservation
Sensible use of the earth's resources to avoid harming the environment.
Ecology
the study of ecosystems
Epiglottis
- located in the back of the mouth; prevents food and drink from entering the larynx
cholesterol
- found in animal tissues, too much can lead to heart disease
signals
- messages sent from brain to nerves
synapse
- place where nerve messages are sent and received
relay
- to transmit a signal
extend
- to increase in length
involuntary
- muscle controlled without thinking about it (pumping heart)
ligaments
- tissues that connect bones, hold organs in place
muscles
- tissues that cause motion in the body when contracted
cardiac muscle
- type of muscle in the heart
musculoskeletal
- muscular and skeletal systems
skeletal muscle
- muscle connected at either end with a bone
smooth muscle
- found in the walls of internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles
tendons
- connects muscle to bone
skeleton
- framework that support the body
Organ
- Similar tissues with a specific function
Inherited traits
- Characteristics passed down through genes given to you by parents
Trait
- distinguishing characteristics
Characteristics-
quality of an organism
DNA-
material in life forms that transfers genetic characteristics
Inherited
-characteristics from parents
Likeness
similarity in appearance or nature between persons or things
Organism
- individual living system
parents
organisms that produce offspring
Offspring
- the young/babies of a person, animal or plant
Generations
- a group of individuals born or living at the same time, such as siblings.
Cell
- the basic unit of life
Multicellular
- composed of several of many cells
Learned Behavior
- A skill you learn through experience such as walking, language, sports...
Unicellular
- composed of one cell
Permeable
- able to pass through
Tissues
- similar cells with a specific function
bones
- forms the substance of a skeleton, support the body
cranium
- skull
femur
- longest, largest, and strongest bone in the human body; located in the leg
cartilage
- flexible connective tissue
fracture
- to break or crack
joints
-place where two parts are joined or united to allow motion
voluntary
- muscle whose action is controlled by the person (example: lifting an arm)
humerus
- long bone in arm extending from the shoulder to the elbow
flex
- to bend
contract
- to draw together
Autonomic Nervous system
- system of nerves that control involuntary functions
axon
- part of neuron that takes information away from a cell body
brain
- controls mental and physical actions, located in the cranium (skull)
brain stem
- part of brain near spinal cord; controls reflexes, breathing, and heartbeat
cerebellum
- large portion of the brain, controls voluntary motions
Immovable joint
- not able to be moved
cerebrum
- largest part of the brain, controls voluntary movements and mental actions
dendrites
- part of a neuron that brings information to a cell body
nerves
- bundle of fibers that send impulses from the brain to other parts of the body
neurons
- specialized, impulse-conducting cells (composed of cell body, axon, dendrites)
spinal cord
- cord of nerve tissue extending through the spinal column
stimuli
- something that causes an action (example-stimulus: hot stove, response: moving hand away from hot stove)
Aerobic exercise
- exercise that increases the need for oxygen
anaerobic exercise examples
- exercise that builds muscles through tension
atrium
- two upper chambers on each side of the heart, receives blood from veins and forces blood into ventricles
blood
- circulates in body to sustain life
blood vessels
- any of the vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) through which the blood circulates
Cardiac
- relating to the heart
Heart
- organ (consisting of four chambers) that circulates blood, divided into four chambers (valves)
Circulation
- flowing (such as the flow of blood throughout the body)
plasma
- contains blood's proteins, suspends blood cells
pulmonary artery
- transports blood from the heart to the lungs
red blood cells
- carries oxygen to your body
Pulse
- regular throbbing of arteries caused by heart contractions
Ventricles
- located in the heart, left and right, pumps blood to the entire body
White blood cells
- fight off infections and diseases
platelets
- smallest blood cells to help form clots if you have an injury
Diaphragm
- sheet-like muscle separating the chest from the abdominal cavity; creates suction to draw in air and expand lungs.
exhale
to breathe out
inhale
to breathe in
Larynx (voice box)
Voice box, Triangular shaped chamber below pharynx that contain vocal cords and Adam's Apple. Is covered by the Epiglottis when swallowing.
Lungs
- two respiratory organs.
nasal passages (nasal cavity)
- helps with inhaling and exhaling of air through the nose.
Pharynx (throat)
- throat; collects incoming air from the nose and passes air to the trachea.
Respiration
- inhaling and exhaling air, breathing.
sinuses
- hollow spaces in the bones of the head, helps regulate temperature of air breathed in.
Bile
- A bitter, alkaline, yellow or greenish liquid, secreted by the liver, which aids in absorption and digestion, of fats.
Anus
- where solid waste exits through the body
Appendix
- located near the small and large intestine, purpose unknown
Bile duct
- stores bile (yellow, green liquid from the liver)
peristalsis
- Involuntary muscular actions that moves food along during digestion.
Diabetes
- A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by inadequate production or use of insulin, resulting in high glucose levels in the blood and urine, excessive urination and persistent thirst, as well as other complications such as infection and blindness.
Tongue
- organ in the mouth; functions include eating, tasting, speaking
Gastric acid
- Digestive secretions of the stomach glands consisting chiefly of hydrochloric acid, mucin and enzymes.
Stomach
- organ in the digestive system that stores and digests foods.
Small intestine
- The long, narrow, coiled section of the intestine that extends from the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine. Nutrients from food are absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine.
Salivary glands
- secretes (releases) saliva
Saliva
- watery fluid for tasting and swallowing food, chewing, keeping mouth moist
Rectum
- straight section of the intestine, ending in the anus, stores solid waste
Pancreas
- about 6" long, located behind the stomach, secretes insulin
Mouth-
where digestion begins
Liver
- filters blood coming from the digestive tract, releases bile, helps take toxins (poisons) from chemicals in the body
Large intestine
- where stool (solid waste) accumulates
Digestion
- The process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed and assimilated by the body.
Esophagus
- muscular passage connecting the mouth and the stomach, rhythmic motion
Fungi
a decomposer that helps in the natural recycling process; i.e. mushrooms
Habitat
: a place where a population lives
Bacteria:
a decomposer that helps in the recycling process
Organism
A living thing
Environment
: everything that surrounds an organism and influences it
Producer
any organism that makes it own food through photosynthesis
Biotic factors
: living things in an ecosystem such as plants and animals
Consumer
: an organism that gets it energy by eating other organisms
Decomposer
: an organism that gets its energy from breaking down decaying organic material into nutrients for an ecosystem; nature's recycler
Abiotic factors
: nonliving things in an ecosystem such as light, air, and soil
Niche
: the specific role an organism plays within its ecosystem
Ecosystem
: an interconnected community that includes all the living and nonliving things in an area
Biodiversity
: a wide variety of organisms
Germination
: process by which seeds swell up, begin to sprout and develop roots
aquatic
_having to do with water
Terrestrial
: having to do with land or the Earth
Terrarium
: a closed class or plastic container in which terrestrial organisms can live and be observed
Aquarium
: a glass or plastic container in which aquatic organisms can live and be observed
Biome
: a very large ecological area on the Earth's surface; there are 6 of these
Taiga
: a cool forest biome of conifers in the upper northern hemisphere
Savannah/Grassland
: a biome where grasses, not trees, are the main plant life; large herbivores live here
Tropical rainforest
: a hot, humid biome near the equator with much rainfall and large variety of life
Desert
: a sandy or rocky biome with little precipitation and little plant life
Tundra
: a cold treeless biome of the far north marked by spongy topsoil
Temperate/Deciduous Forest:
a forest biome with many kinds of trees that lose their leaves each Autumn (Fall); the biome we live in
Sediment
: tiny bits of soil that are often transported by water or wind
Elodea
: a producer that is an aquatic plant, often called "water weeds"
prey
the victim of the predator---hunted and killed by a predator
Photosynthesis
the process in which plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to create sugar for themselves for food
Transpiration
the process through which plants release water into the environment (aka plant sweat)
Trade-off
the act of giving up one things in order to get another
predator
an animal that hunts and consumes another animal for food
Carnivore
a consumer which gets its energy by eating only meat/animal flesh
Herbivore
a consumer which gets its energy by eating only plants and vegetation
Omnivore
a consumer which gets its energy by eating both plants and meat/animal flesh
Dependent relationships
relying on another; for example: plants rely on sun for its light
Interdependent relationships
relying on one another; for example: animals eat plants as a food source but plants depend on animals for carbon dioxide
Adaptation
a change in order to fit in a new situation or use
Radiation
a way that energy is transferred from the sun to the Earth
Population
All the members of one species in an area.
Community
All the populations living in one area.
Algae blooms
When too many algae crowd the water and block sunlight from reaching underwater grasses. This is caused by too many nutrients in the water from sewer drainage and fertilizer run off
freshwater ecosystem
An aquatic ecosystems that is composed of drinkable water. Comes from lakes, ponds, and streams.
saltwater
An aquatic ecosystem that is composed of salt water. Comes from oceans and estuaries.
Watershed
An area of land whose waters all drain into the same place.
Estuary
The mouth of a large river where the river meets the ocean. Creates brackish water.
Individual
A single member of a species
Brackish
A mix of salt and freshwater.
Food Web
Overlapping food chains in an ecosystem
Second Level/Secondary Consumer
The second consumer in a food chain or food web
First Level/Primary Consumer
The first consumer in a food chain or food web
Third Level/Tertiary Consumer
The third consumer in a food chain or food web
Energy Pyramid
A model that shows the flow of energy from the producer to top consumer
Food Chain
Shows the flow of the Sun's energy from one organisms to another
Coexist
To live together in the same environment
Increased Nutrients
Added to the environment can create algae blooms which can limit existing organisms in an aquatic community
Acid Rain
Moisture that falls to the earth after being mixed with waste from burned fossil fuel.
pollutant
A harmful or unpleasant substance which can have negative effects on an ecosystem when spread through the air, water, soil.
Fertile
Rich in nutrients; often used to describe soil
Control
the part of an experiment that stays the same
Variable
The part of an experiment that is changed or tested
Model
Representation of objects or processes that function like, describe, or explain the real thing.
Fair Test
Altering or changing only one variable in an experiment
pH Level
Measured on a scale of 0-14. 7 is neutral, 0-6 is acid (i.e. orange juice), 8-14 is basic (i.e.milk)
Friction
-A force that resists movement between two objects that are touching.
Energy
The ability to do work or cause change
Work
- Is only done when a force makes something move.
Force
-A push or a pull. A force is also needed to make a moving object slow down, change direction or stop moving.
drag
-the force that opposes the forward motion of a vehicle.
Gravity
-A force of attraction between any two masses. The strength of this force is dependent on the mass of each object and their distance from one another.
Action and Reaction (Newton's Third Law)
- Forces are found in pairs: for every action (force) there is an opposite and equal reaction (force).
Conservation of Mass
- The principle that mass cannot be created or destroyed. (ie. 10 grams of water plus 5 grams of salt equal 15 grams of salt water solution).
Velocity
-The rate of change of position. Speed + Direction.
Potential Energy
-Stored energy that can be released to become other forms of energy.
Kinetic Energy
- A type of energy associated with motion.
Unbalanced Forces
- Initiate (causes) movement and influences movement.
Balanced Forces
-When an object is at rest it is balanced.
Matter
- The material or substance that things are made of (electrons, neutrons, and protons)
Mass
the amount of matter in an object
Momentum
- the rate of acceleration. Mass x Velocity =
Distance
- How far something moves.
Tension
-a force exerted by a stretched object, such as a spring.
Revolutions
- the spinning of an object. One complete spin is equal to one revolution.
Technological Design
- The process of identifying a problem, creating a solution, evaluating the solution by testing, and then refining the design to improve performance is the essence of technological design. Plan, build, test, evaluate.
Thermal Energy
-is energy in the form of heat.
Chemical Change
- An irreversible change in the properties or composition of a substance resulting in a new substance. (ex. Wood burning or iron rusting.)
Solar Energy
- energy harnessed from the sun's radiation.
Radiation-
The process in which energy is emitted by particles or waves
Conduction
-The transfer of heat or electrical energy by physical touching of two objects.