- A usually reversible change in the physical properties of a substance such as size or shape: (ex. Water freezing into ice)
- the process by which wind is used to generate electricity (ie. windmills)
The transfer of heat by the movement of a liquid or gas.
-a ramp is an example of this.
the change in position of an object
- A measure of how fast something is moving. How far an object can go in a certain amount of time. Distance divided by time.
- The amount of gravitational force on the matter of an object.
Inertia (Newton's First Law)
-The tendency of a moving object to stay in motion or a resting object to stay still is inertia.
Laws of Motion
-Three laws formulated by Sir Isaac Newton, the describe how objects move in relation to the forces acting on them.
Acceleration (Newton's Second Law)
-Acceleration is the rate at which an object changes its velocity. An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity.
-The force of friction on a vehicle as it moves through the air.
Sensible use of the earth's resources to avoid harming the environment.
the study of ecosystems
- located in the back of the mouth; prevents food and drink from entering the larynx
- found in animal tissues, too much can lead to heart disease
- messages sent from brain to nerves
- place where nerve messages are sent and received
- to transmit a signal
- to increase in length
- muscle controlled without thinking about it (pumping heart)
- tissues that connect bones, hold organs in place
- tissues that cause motion in the body when contracted
- type of muscle in the heart
- muscular and skeletal systems
- muscle connected at either end with a bone
- found in the walls of internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles
- connects muscle to bone
- framework that support the body
- Similar tissues with a specific function
- Characteristics passed down through genes given to you by parents
- distinguishing characteristics
quality of an organism
material in life forms that transfers genetic characteristics
-characteristics from parents
similarity in appearance or nature between persons or things
- individual living system
organisms that produce offspring
- the young/babies of a person, animal or plant
- a group of individuals born or living at the same time, such as siblings.
- the basic unit of life
- composed of several of many cells
- A skill you learn through experience such as walking, language, sports...
- composed of one cell
- able to pass through
- similar cells with a specific function
- forms the substance of a skeleton, support the body
- longest, largest, and strongest bone in the human body; located in the leg
- flexible connective tissue
- to break or crack
-place where two parts are joined or united to allow motion
- muscle whose action is controlled by the person (example: lifting an arm)
- long bone in arm extending from the shoulder to the elbow
- to bend
- to draw together
Autonomic Nervous system
- system of nerves that control involuntary functions
- part of neuron that takes information away from a cell body
- controls mental and physical actions, located in the cranium (skull)
- part of brain near spinal cord; controls reflexes, breathing, and heartbeat
- large portion of the brain, controls voluntary motions
- not able to be moved
- largest part of the brain, controls voluntary movements and mental actions
- part of a neuron that brings information to a cell body
- bundle of fibers that send impulses from the brain to other parts of the body
- specialized, impulse-conducting cells (composed of cell body, axon, dendrites)
- cord of nerve tissue extending through the spinal column
- something that causes an action (example-stimulus: hot stove, response: moving hand away from hot stove)
- exercise that increases the need for oxygen
anaerobic exercise examples
- exercise that builds muscles through tension
- two upper chambers on each side of the heart, receives blood from veins and forces blood into ventricles
- circulates in body to sustain life
- any of the vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) through which the blood circulates
- relating to the heart
- organ (consisting of four chambers) that circulates blood, divided into four chambers (valves)
- flowing (such as the flow of blood throughout the body)
- contains blood's proteins, suspends blood cells
- transports blood from the heart to the lungs
red blood cells
- carries oxygen to your body
- regular throbbing of arteries caused by heart contractions
- located in the heart, left and right, pumps blood to the entire body
White blood cells
- fight off infections and diseases
- smallest blood cells to help form clots if you have an injury
- sheet-like muscle separating the chest from the abdominal cavity; creates suction to draw in air and expand lungs.
to breathe out
to breathe in
Larynx (voice box)
Voice box, Triangular shaped chamber below pharynx that contain vocal cords and Adam's Apple. Is covered by the Epiglottis when swallowing.
- two respiratory organs.
nasal passages (nasal cavity)
- helps with inhaling and exhaling of air through the nose.
- throat; collects incoming air from the nose and passes air to the trachea.
- inhaling and exhaling air, breathing.
- hollow spaces in the bones of the head, helps regulate temperature of air breathed in.
- A bitter, alkaline, yellow or greenish liquid, secreted by the liver, which aids in absorption and digestion, of fats.
- where solid waste exits through the body
- located near the small and large intestine, purpose unknown
- stores bile (yellow, green liquid from the liver)
- Involuntary muscular actions that moves food along during digestion.
- A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by inadequate production or use of insulin, resulting in high glucose levels in the blood and urine, excessive urination and persistent thirst, as well as other complications such as infection and blindness.
- organ in the mouth; functions include eating, tasting, speaking
- Digestive secretions of the stomach glands consisting chiefly of hydrochloric acid, mucin and enzymes.
- organ in the digestive system that stores and digests foods.
- The long, narrow, coiled section of the intestine that extends from the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine. Nutrients from food are absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine.
- secretes (releases) saliva
- watery fluid for tasting and swallowing food, chewing, keeping mouth moist
- straight section of the intestine, ending in the anus, stores solid waste
- about 6" long, located behind the stomach, secretes insulin
where digestion begins
- filters blood coming from the digestive tract, releases bile, helps take toxins (poisons) from chemicals in the body
- where stool (solid waste) accumulates
- The process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed and assimilated by the body.
- muscular passage connecting the mouth and the stomach, rhythmic motion
a decomposer that helps in the natural recycling process; i.e. mushrooms
: a place where a population lives
a decomposer that helps in the recycling process
A living thing
: everything that surrounds an organism and influences it
any organism that makes it own food through photosynthesis
: living things in an ecosystem such as plants and animals
: an organism that gets it energy by eating other organisms
: an organism that gets its energy from breaking down decaying organic material into nutrients for an ecosystem; nature's recycler
: nonliving things in an ecosystem such as light, air, and soil
: the specific role an organism plays within its ecosystem
: an interconnected community that includes all the living and nonliving things in an area
: a wide variety of organisms
: process by which seeds swell up, begin to sprout and develop roots
_having to do with water
: having to do with land or the Earth
: a closed class or plastic container in which terrestrial organisms can live and be observed
: a glass or plastic container in which aquatic organisms can live and be observed
: a very large ecological area on the Earth's surface; there are 6 of these
: a cool forest biome of conifers in the upper northern hemisphere
: a biome where grasses, not trees, are the main plant life; large herbivores live here
: a hot, humid biome near the equator with much rainfall and large variety of life
: a sandy or rocky biome with little precipitation and little plant life
: a cold treeless biome of the far north marked by spongy topsoil
a forest biome with many kinds of trees that lose their leaves each Autumn (Fall); the biome we live in
: tiny bits of soil that are often transported by water or wind
: a producer that is an aquatic plant, often called "water weeds"
the victim of the predator---hunted and killed by a predator
the process in which plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to create sugar for themselves for food
the process through which plants release water into the environment (aka plant sweat)
the act of giving up one things in order to get another
an animal that hunts and consumes another animal for food
a consumer which gets its energy by eating only meat/animal flesh
a consumer which gets its energy by eating only plants and vegetation
a consumer which gets its energy by eating both plants and meat/animal flesh
relying on another; for example: plants rely on sun for its light
relying on one another; for example: animals eat plants as a food source but plants depend on animals for carbon dioxide
a change in order to fit in a new situation or use
a way that energy is transferred from the sun to the Earth
All the members of one species in an area.
All the populations living in one area.
When too many algae crowd the water and block sunlight from reaching underwater grasses. This is caused by too many nutrients in the water from sewer drainage and fertilizer run off
An aquatic ecosystems that is composed of drinkable water. Comes from lakes, ponds, and streams.
An aquatic ecosystem that is composed of salt water. Comes from oceans and estuaries.
An area of land whose waters all drain into the same place.
The mouth of a large river where the river meets the ocean. Creates brackish water.
A single member of a species
A mix of salt and freshwater.
Overlapping food chains in an ecosystem
Second Level/Secondary Consumer
The second consumer in a food chain or food web
First Level/Primary Consumer
The first consumer in a food chain or food web
Third Level/Tertiary Consumer
The third consumer in a food chain or food web
A model that shows the flow of energy from the producer to top consumer
Shows the flow of the Sun's energy from one organisms to another
To live together in the same environment
Added to the environment can create algae blooms which can limit existing organisms in an aquatic community
Moisture that falls to the earth after being mixed with waste from burned fossil fuel.
A harmful or unpleasant substance which can have negative effects on an ecosystem when spread through the air, water, soil.
Rich in nutrients; often used to describe soil
the part of an experiment that stays the same
The part of an experiment that is changed or tested
Representation of objects or processes that function like, describe, or explain the real thing.
Altering or changing only one variable in an experiment
Measured on a scale of 0-14. 7 is neutral, 0-6 is acid (i.e. orange juice), 8-14 is basic (i.e.milk)
-A force that resists movement between two objects that are touching.
The ability to do work or cause change
- Is only done when a force makes something move.
-A push or a pull. A force is also needed to make a moving object slow down, change direction or stop moving.
-the force that opposes the forward motion of a vehicle.
-A force of attraction between any two masses. The strength of this force is dependent on the mass of each object and their distance from one another.
Action and Reaction (Newton's Third Law)
- Forces are found in pairs: for every action (force) there is an opposite and equal reaction (force).
Conservation of Mass
- The principle that mass cannot be created or destroyed. (ie. 10 grams of water plus 5 grams of salt equal 15 grams of salt water solution).
-The rate of change of position. Speed + Direction.
-Stored energy that can be released to become other forms of energy.
- A type of energy associated with motion.
- Initiate (causes) movement and influences movement.
-When an object is at rest it is balanced.
- The material or substance that things are made of (electrons, neutrons, and protons)
the amount of matter in an object
- the rate of acceleration. Mass x Velocity =
- How far something moves.
-a force exerted by a stretched object, such as a spring.
- the spinning of an object. One complete spin is equal to one revolution.
- The process of identifying a problem, creating a solution, evaluating the solution by testing, and then refining the design to improve performance is the essence of technological design. Plan, build, test, evaluate.
-is energy in the form of heat.
- An irreversible change in the properties or composition of a substance resulting in a new substance. (ex. Wood burning or iron rusting.)
- energy harnessed from the sun's radiation.
The process in which energy is emitted by particles or waves
-The transfer of heat or electrical energy by physical touching of two objects.