94 terms

GRG 305 Final Exam Terms

Acid Rain
rain that occurs after excessive pollution from industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogran oxides) and water vapor; acids that form in the atmosphere
Amenities (Urban)
factors that make a place appealing to prospective inhabitants, part of a city's situation and site
Anti-Urban Ideologies
dream - "anything but the city"; back to nature
Automobile Dependency
areas of urban sprawl that are characterized as highly dependent on automobile transportation
Back Office
the part of most corporations where tasks dedicated to running the company itself takes places (such as filing/administrative tasks); moved to suburbs in the 80's for women workforce
leftover land used from various industries; danger zone, especially for children, etc.
Burgess, Ernest
sociologist at the University of Chicago who created the concentric zone model
contains the oldest homes; the central portion of a city, characterized by high-density land uses; a dense cluster of offices and shops and is formed around the point within the city that is most accessible; businesses and services located here experience the most "action" as measured by the volume of people, money, and ideas moving through space
Central Place Theory
set of models designed to explain spatial distribution of urban service centers formulated by Walter Christaller
Centrifugal Forces
any factor that disrupts the internal order of a country; Examples - classism, white flight, automobile dependency, aging infrastructure, inner-city crime, school quality, and inner-city pollution
Ceremonial Center
a building (or buildings) that serves as the focus of religious and governmental activities, differing from a village or town
Climate Change
significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years; change in average weather or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions; caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics and volcanic eruptions
process through which forests and trees are cut for commercial uses; began at least 3000 years ago; in the last half century, 1/3 of world's forest cover is gone
Economic Restructuring
the assumption that by restructuring an area with low standards of living, which are mainly in the primary sector, in the form of industrialization will lead to this
responsible travel that does not harm ecosystems or the well-being of local people
Edge Cities
a new urban cluster of economic activity that surrounds nineteenth-century downtowns; were once peripherals to the central city; 5 characteristics - has 5 million sq. feet of leasable office space; has 600,000 sq. feet of leasable retail space; has more jobs than bedrooms; perceived by the population as one place; nothing resembling a city as recently as 30 years ago
Endocrine Disruptors
synthetic chemicals and industrial byproducts that have an effect on the endocrine system
Exotic Species
species that have origins outside of the country i.e. Kudzu and zebra mollusk
Exurban Development
habitat destruction for various reasons, a region lying beyond the suburbs of a city inhabited by wealthy people
Federal Highways Act
authorized the building of highways throughout the nation
Festival Marketplace
perform a vital function in the attempt to revitalize downtowns, usually large-scale projects focused on a multi use redevelopment scheme built around a particular setting, often one with a historical association; San Antonio Riverwalk has a festival setting
Fiscal Retrenchment
when a government has to introduce deflationary measures designed to reduce the amount of borrowing and debt that has been run up during a downturn in their economy; done by either raising taxes or reducing government expenses
Gated Community
residential areas that are inaccessible to the public; are often considered "American" but can now be found throughout the world; can be seen as wanting to shield themselves from the "dangerous" urban setting; sign of wealth/prestige and perhaps paranoia depending on the area
the displacement of lower income residents by higher income residents as buildings in deteriorated areas of city centers are restored; however, can also be seen as environmentally sustainable (does not take up large plots of agricultural land as suburbs do); happening in East Austin; home to a large LGBT community; also attractive for young, urban couples - distinct lifestyles/change in view about family values than the 1950's; seen as more exciting area to live in than the suburbs
Geographic information system
Global Cities
a city that is a control center of the global economy; from the top level of a hierarchical global system of cities, they are the places where major decisions about the world's commercial networks and financial markets are made; i.e. New York, London, Tokyo
Global Climate Change
increased frequency of severe storms, cooling in Europe, fluctuations in ocean currents, change in weather patterns, cycles, etc. globally; due to industrial activity, particularly, due to increasingly produced carbon dioxide
the binding together of all of the lands and peoples of the world into an integrated system driven by capitalist free markets, in which cultural diffusion is rapid, independent states are weakened, and cultural homogenization is encouraged
an area of agricultural or forest land, or some other undeveloped site earmarked for commercial development or industrial projects; Woodlands area for Houston
Greenhouse Gases
gases in the atmosphere that absorb radiation from the sun, thus making Earth's temperature warmer; these include CO2, water vapor, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone; although naturally occurring, the burning of fossil fuels has led to a much higher concentration of CO2, making Earth warmer
Habitat Loss
squirrels, possums, snakes, etc. lose their homes due to driveway paths and deforestation
Hoyt, Homer
created the Sector Model - 1930s
Hydraulic Civilization Model
a civilization based on large-scale irrigation; can't be applied to all urban hearths; i.e. Mesoamerica
Independent Invention
a cultural innovation that is developed in two or more locations by individuals or groups working independently
Industrial Agglomeration
clustering which results in mutual benefits for businesses; a snowballing geographical process by which secondary and service industrial activities become clustered in cities and compact industrial regions in order to share infrastructure and markets
Industrial Location Factors
includes raw materials, energy supply, natural routes (rivers, waterways, etc.), land, available labor force, market, transport (road, train, air, etc.), government policies
Industrial Revolution
a series of inventions and innovations, arising in England in the 1700s, that led to the use of machines and inanimate power in the manufacturing process; initial breakthrough came from the manufacturing sector/industry, more specifically the British cotton textile cottage industry; also revolutionized primary industries such as coal mining; revolutionized the service sector/industry by causing a need for new forms of transportation; this fostered cultural diffusion
Infrastructure (urban)
basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Kyoto Accord
Established a CO2 cap to help reduce the effects of global warming
Land Use
human use of the land; involves management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as fields, pastures, and settlements
Leapfrog Development
development that is spaced far apart, sometimes separated by lawns, landscaping roads, or parking lots; the development of land for suburban areas intermixed with farmland; cheap for the developer, but more expensive for the area (utilities such as water, electricity, etc.)
Levitt, William
Levittown - suburban 'cookie-cutter' housing (inexpensive post-war housing)
Light Rail
railway system for commuting between suburban areas and downtown/CBD/inner city
Militarized Urban Space
refers to the increase in space being used to set up defenses against people the city considers undesirable; Example - lack of street furniture to guard against homeless living on the streets, gated communities to keep certain people out
Mixed Use Development
mix of services in a single area
Montreal Protocol
1989; the greatest success so far in implementing an international environmental agreement; designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer; signed by 25 nations
Morphology (Urban)
the form and structure of cities, including street patterns and the size/shape of buildings
Mueller Development
similar to the Triangle development in Austin; an isolated area
Multiple Nuclei Model (of city)
a model that depicts a city growing from several separate focal points; Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman
Nonrenewable Resources
a resource that once consumed cannot be replaced; fossil fuels
the physical separation of some economic activities from the main production facility, usually for the purpose of employing cheaper labor
Ozone depletion (stratospheric)
pollution affecting the upper atmosphere
toxins in food chain - "persistent organic pollutants"
Post-industrial economy
economies in which most of the jobs are in services
Postwar Housing
mass produced housing from the 1950s; which reflected influences from desire to create a certain kind of site (scenic, close to economic centers, etc.)
Primary industries (Primary Sector)
an industry engaged in the extraction of natural resources, such as agriculture, lumbering, and mining such as mining, hunting, fishing, logging, and farming, involve extraction of raw materials directly from the earth - "extractive" industries
Public Transit
a means of bringing people together again; active use by Charlotte, NC (Lynx light rail system)
Quincy Market
model for urban planners; good for tourists but not as good for local economy; Boston
Radioactive Pollution
the release of radioactive substances or high-energy particles into the air, water, or earth as a result of human-activity
a practice by banks and mortgage companies of demarcating areas considered to be high risk for housing loans
Renewable Resources
a resource that is not depleted if wisely used, such as forests, water, fishing grounds, and agricultural lands; refers to those that are replenished naturally at a rate sufficient to balance their depletion by human use; often disrupted by industrialization
Resource Depletion
exhaustion of raw materials within a region; use of resources beyond their rate of replacement
Riverside, Illinois
designed by Frederick Law Olmsted; Prototype suburb 9 miles from Chicago; reached by streetcars
The Riverwalk
plan to revitalize downtown San Antonio; ironic development because it's trying to attract tourists historically while at the same time expelling locals ("rowdy Hispanic teenagers")
Rural-Urban Migration
has brought millions of people to urban life; people leave their rural villages and migrate to cities for better economic and social opportunities; ends up being relatively better than rural life, but people still lack human capital (job skills) to fit most positions; surplus of labor > unemployment
Secondary Industries (Secondary Sector)
an industry engaged in processing raw materials into finished products; manufacturing activities that work on the products that are extracted - ore refining, fish packing, lumber milling, etc.
Sector Model
an economic model that depicts a city as a series of pie-shaped wedges; Homer Hoyt; focus on major transportation routes (wealthy are attracted to), and then middle-income attracted to where wealthy go, and then lower-income fill in the gaps; exception - freeway; why? Freeways were expanded/invested in after this sector model was developed in the 1930s; developers found that locating freeways next to low-income housing was the cheapest method
Sennett, Richard
wrote a book that criticized suburbs as "purified" communities where people escape from the complexity and diversity of society
Service Industries
tertiary sector; producer services - wholesalers, finance, investment, real estate, corporate lawyer; consumer services - doctors, retail, food service
Shopping Mall
competition with downtown shopping 'centers'; outward movement; following suburbs; have a characteristic form (anchor stores like department stores and then smaller stores as well) and are said to be the new centers of urban life because they seem to be the major sites for social interaction; considered private spaces of consumption not public spaces of socialization (too noisy of shoppers are removed by mall security)
Spatial Mismatch
employment opportunities for low-income people are located in areas far from where they live
low density development, usually occurs after rapid suburbanization; reliant on vehicles
corporate stakeholder can affect or be affected by the actions of the business as a whole; organizations would not exist without their support; theory was later developed by R. Edward Freeman in the 1980s; gained wide acceptance in business practice and in theorizing relating to strategic management, corporate governance, business purpose and corporate social responsibility
early form of public transit dating from the 1870's / driven by horse, cable, and eventually electricity; by 1950's it was in competition with the car, bus companies (that are also automobile companies) then bought up and dismantled the system
the survival of land-use system for centuries or millennia without destruction of the environmental base, allowing generation after generation to continue to live there
Temporarily Obsolete And Derelict Structures; abandoned or underused property where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by the presence or potential presence of environmental contamination
Transition Zone
Abandonment of obsolete land uses and structure, assimilation of these structures by new development, and slow displacement of poor residential populations
edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing; beyond the tree line, they are unable to grow because of inappropriate environmental conditions, usually cold temperatures or lack of moisture
The Triangle
development in Austin, TX; attempts to recreate a walkable city; very compact; consists of housing units located directly above shopping centers; surrounding areas aren't nearly as compact or busy though
UNO (university neighborhood overlay)
a city initiative passed in 2004 "intended to help create a residential district that is close to the campus, consolidating some of the student housing that is presently scattered throughout the city, and thereby reducing transient student traffic to campus from outside, and reducing the transient parking requirements around West Campus"; the plan seeks to bring UT students closer to campus, as well as create a denser, urban environment in order to provide more space for the growing student population
Urban Decentralization
sprawl and the associated outward shifts of retail, offices, and jobs
Urban Hearth Areas
a region in which the world's first cities evolved
Urban Renaissance
started in the 1990's and accelerates in the early 2000's, the rebirth and revitalization of the urban areas; Example - the riverwalk in San Antonio and the Quincy Market in Boston
Urban Site
the relationship between a city and the physical environment and landscape in which it is located
Urban Situation
the relationship between a city and the rest of the urban system in which it is located
Urban System
Any network of towns and cities, and their hinterlands, which can be seen as a system, since it depends on the movements of labor, goods and services, ideas, and capital through the network; crucial to the interactions within the system are efficient systems of transport and communication; with improved technology, it is possible to see urban systems which transcend national boundaries
the increase over time in the population of cities in relation to the region's rural population
Waller Creek Project
urban planning project going on in Austin to revitalize the degrading downtown area
White Flight
whites move out of an area because of minorities moving in; racial avoidance strategies
Wind Power
conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships
Wittfogel, Karl
developed the hydraulic civilization model
Zonal Model
concentric zone model; a model that shows zones that appear because of accessibility and land in the central business district remains more valuable than in the periphery (wealthy vs. poverty); there are now multiple nuclei because different land uses benefit different amounts of accessibility; social model that depicts a city as 5 areas bounded by concentric rings (CBD, transition, blue-collar, middle income, commuter or suburbs)
university neighborhood (especially West Campus) overlay; main tool used by American cities to regulate and manage growth; protect property values