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Texas Teacher Certification - TExES ESL Supplemental Exam (154)
Terms in this set (90)
the meaning of a word, phrase, sentence, or text
the use and function of language and the contexts in which it is used
an attitude or emotion that a speaker brings to an utterance
any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another
the system of relationships among the speech sounds that constitute the fundamental components of a language
the ability to deal explicitly with segmental sound units smaller than a syllable. Example: The sound units in D O G.
Study of sounds of the human speech.
Involves teaching children to connect sounds with letters or groups of letters. Example: (K) can be represented by C, K, or Ch spellings.
a meaningful morphological unit of a language that cannot be further divided
the study of the forms of words and how words are formed
the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language, and the set of rules to do so
the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge
a situation in which a word has two or more meanings
a continuous stretch of speech or written text, going beyond a sentence to express thought
A variety of a language defined by both geographical factors and social factors, such as class, religion, and ethnicity.
the evolution of word usage—usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage
refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from one language to another language
Direct, literal meaning
a general chronic difficulty in retrieving vocabulary items
the practice of alternating between two or more languages or varieties of language in conversation
a common communication strategy used in L2 acquisition: the learner knows the meaning but hasn't yet acquired the corresponding L2 word so they use more words than necessary to describe it
the level of formality with which you speak -- different situations and people call for different registers
Information that a student uses
from his first language that does not exist in the second language
the ability to read and write proficiently in two languages
the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice.
Words which have a common origin. There are 3 distinct levels. They are: True Cognate- Partial Cognate- False Cognate
The word is spelled the same, meaning the same, but pronunciation will be different according to language structure of the words such as an accent mark. Example: English- rodeo Spanish- rodeo
The word in other languages has the same origin but the spelling will differ. The meaning will be the same but the pronunciation due to the language structure will be different. Example: english- fragrance spanish- frangancia english- apple german apfel
The word in another language may have the same origin but will have different spelling and different meaning. Pronunciation will be different. Example: English- ext- to go out, leave Spanish- exito- success English- embarrassed- uncomfortable Spanish embarazada- pregnant
an assessment of student that includes notes about students recorded during the day
an assessment that requires students to perform a specific task
a collection of a variety of work that has been completed over a period of time
an assessment that requires a specific time for administration and set expectations for what is being assessed
Concrete objects from the everyday world used during instruction to make input comprehensible
Also referred to as transition or bridge classes. Students cover the same content areas as English only classes but they do so in a manner that adapts the language components of the classes to meet the needs of the language minority students' English proficiency levels.
Brain is a blank slate, imitation of input from environment, habit formation by reptition, errors due to habits, contrastive analysis can predict L2 errors (L1 interferes with L2 acquisition), audiolingual methods (in classroom)
Leaning result of social interaction, children construct understanding in context of their activities, early langage is egocentric, brain learns when ready, progress from concrete to more abstract, from figurative to operative, exploratory, discovery learning (in classroom)
Language Acquisition Device (LAD), LAD contains principles of Universal Grammar, independent process (not general learning), process of rule formation
Communicative Approach (Krashen)
Two separate processes in development of languages- acquisition and learning
emphasis on oral language acquisition; involves demonstrations by teacher and use of pictures, films; other visuals; stress on total immersion in L2 with no use of L1.
based on behavioral psychology and structural linguistics; uses mimicry, memorization drills; emphasis on isolated grammar structures; use of tapes, language labs, visual aids.
TPR (Total Physical Response)
Uses body movement to accelerate language acquisition, teacher gives command and models the action: open your book; stand up; walk to the window.
Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell)
Comprehensible input, affective filter, natural order, monitor
specially designed academic instruction in English (SDAIE)
a teaching approach intended for teaching various academic content (such as social studies, science or literature) using the English language to students who are still learning English. SDAIE requires the student possess intermediate fluency in English as well as mastery of their native language. The instruction is carefully prepared so the student can access the English language content supported by material in their primary language and carefully planned instruction that strives for comprehensible input. SDAIE is a method of teaching students in English in such a manner that they gain skills in both the subject material and in using English
CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley)
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach: Through carefully designed lesson plans tied to content curriculum, teachers explicitly teach learning strategies and have students apply them to instructional tasks. Plans are based on these assumptions: 1. Mentally active learners are better learners. 2. Strategies can be taught. 3. Learning strategies transfer to new tasks. 4. Academic language learning is more effective with learning strategies.
Sociocultureal/Communicative Theory (Vygotzky)
Learning occurs within the interpersonal space of teacher-student interactions. Temporary support (scaffolding) is essential. ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT: Tasks children can complete independently, tasks children can complete when assisted by a competent teacher, tasks children cannot complete even with assistance.
Sheltered Content (Echevarria, Vogt, and Short)
SIOP- Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol, Attention to content objectives, language objectives, background knowledge, interaction, and meaningful activities.
Communicative approach led to content-based ESL instruction to prepare students for mainstream classes. Taught by ESL educators, Addresses key topics in grade-level curriculum, seeks to develop students' English proficiency through study of subject area content, and addresses academic skills
is shared beliefs, values , and rule governed by patterns of behavior that define a group. (Peregoy & Boyle, 2001) It includes what people know and believe, what people do, and what people make and use.
Part of culture that can be seen: Language, clothing, food, customs, and art.
Below the surface are the more meaningful and powerful aspects of culture: a. Beliefs- what we see as truth b. Norms- unwritten rules for behavior c. values- what we hold most important
The realization of the depth of difference between home culture and the new culture; may cause frustration, anger, and depression.
The process of adapting to a new culture.
The members of a group are absorbed into a culture and lose characteristics of the first culture. The group is willing or forced to accept the surface and deep culture of the new culture and give up original culture.
Groups lacking desirable traits are excluded from society. These groups include poor, uneducated, undesirable color and language. These groups will stay on the margin of acceptance by society unless there is social intervention.
Finding ways to adapt to and become part of the new culture while maintaining important values and customs of the original culture.
ability to read and comprehend the written word accurately and quickly
(Cummins, J. 1979-1980) Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills: Skills necessary for functioning in every day life, face-to face interactions. These skills usually take about two years to develop in most second language learners.
Purposes of BICS
express/ wants/ needs, make jokes, exchange greetings, express agreement or disagreement, make personal conversation.
(Cummins, J. 1979-1980) Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency: The aspects of language linked to literacy and academic achievement. These skills usually take five to seven years to fully develop in Second language learners.
Purposes of CALP
comprehend written text, produce written text, ask/answer informational and clairifying questions related to academic content, make connections involving academic information, conduct research
develops unconsiously through us
Stages of Development in Communication Skills
Stage 1: One-way Communication Stage 2: Partial Two-way Communication Stage 3: Full Two-way Communication
Stage 1: One-way Communication
"Silent period"- learners are acquiring knowledge about the new language, including vocabulary, syntax, and content knowledge.
Stage 2: Partial Two-way Communication
The learners listen to communication and respond with either gestures or their native language. They can show comprehension without speaking by nodding, pointing, drawing, and gesturing.
Stage 3: Full Two-way Communication
Learners listen and respond effectively in the target language. Process through the stages is enhanced when the level of activity matches the learners' stage of development.
uses visuals and vocal props to help student understand what is said. Picture and other objects graphically explain and demonstrate. Gestures are used and so is tone of voice.
has no visual cues so the student must rely on competency and fluency to understand (phone conversations)
Grammar-based method for teaching ELLs
teaches the rules, structure, function and vocabulary -- emphasis in on the why and how.
Communication-based method for teaching ELLs
teaches how to use English in everyday, realistic situations -- emphasis on practical conversational useage.
Content-based method for teaching ELLs
teaches grammar and vocabulary and uses written assignments to practice -- emphasizes an integrated approach to learning English.
Continuum of Learning Theory
Outlines predictable steps when learning a new language. Teachers will encounter these general levels of mastery: silent/receptive or Prereproduction; Early Production; Speech Emergence; Intermediate Language Proficiency; Advanced Learning Proficiency
Silent/recpetive or PREPRODUCTION
lasts few hours to 6 months. Std usually doesn't say much and communicates using pictures, gestures or pointing.
Std uses one and two word phrases. They indicate understanding with yes/no and who/what/where questions. Lasts up to 6 months.
Last up to 1 year. Students use short sentences and begint o ask simple quetions. Grammatical errors make communication challenging.
INTERMEDIATE LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY
Std begin to make complex statements, share thoughts and opinions and speak more often. May last 1 year or more.
ADVANCE LEARNING PROFICIENCY
Lasts 5 - 7 years. Students have acquired a substatial vocabulary and are capapble of participating in activities and discussions
4 Key Pricipals of Language Aquisition for ELL
4 key concepts in mainstream classrooms to help ELL acquire proficiency in both writing and speaking: increase comprehensibility; encourage interaction; increase thinking and study skills; use native language
use pictures, props, gestures and voice variations to explain or demonstrate a subject.
ask questions and assign group activities. Provide ELL lots of opportunity to practice to increase confidence.
Increase thinking and study skills
ask thought provoking questions, assign complex topics for research. Expect hight standards from every studnet.
Use native language
helps increase comprehension and understanding. Clarifies instructions and helps std understand what is expected.
Casteneda v. Pickard
the court decision which established a three-part assessment for determining how bilingual education programs would be held responsible for meeting the requirements of the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974. The criteria are: 1)The bilingual education program must be "based on sound educational theory." 2)The program must be "implemented effectively with resources for personnel, instructional materials, and space." 3) After a trial period, the program must be proven effective in overcoming language barriers/handicaps.
Lau v. Nichols
the court decision requires schools to accommodate and support students with limited English abilities
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee made up of one or more professional personnel and a parent of a LEP student participating in the program. Recommends appropriate placement of students assessed as LEP.
(Reading Proficiency Test in English II) This is a reading proficiency test in English for grades 2-12 given each spring to ESL students to show adequate yearly progress in reading
(Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System) The RPTE and TOP assessments fall under this system. Students are rated annually on their proficiency of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Every student is supposed to make adequately yearly progress by improving a level each year from beginning- to advanced high.
Federal funding to provide supplemental resources to education agencies to help ensure LEP students attain English proficiency at high levels in academic core areas
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ESL 154 TEXES Exam (Revised 07/12/2017)
TEXES ESL Supplement (154)
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