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C176 - Chapter 1-10
WGU C176 - Business of IT - Project Management
Terms in this set (383)
Who is ultimately responsible for the project's outcome?
The project manager
Steps in validating a project(2)
1- Validate the business case
2- Then I.D. and analyze stakeholders.
Name the traits to define a project.
1- temporary in nature
2- delivers a unique:
2.3 or result.
Who is responsible for developing the project plan?
The project manager
What project management function occupies most of a project manager's time and effort?
A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide)
The project management standard developed by the Project Management Institute (PMI).
Knowledge Areas outlined in the PMBOK Guide(9)
5- Human Resources
9- Integration Management
Name the steps in validating a business case.
1- Feasibility study
3- Alignment to the strategic plan
Benefit measurement methods
A type of decision model comparing benefits obtained from a variety of new project requests by evaluating them using the same criteria and comparing the results.
A formal method of project selection that helps managers make the best use of limited budgets and human resources. Includes benefit measurement methods and constrained optimization models.
Discounted cash flow (DCF)
Compares the value of the future cash flows of the project to today's dollars.
A type of benefit measurement method. It is a series of financial calculations that provide data on the overall financials of the project and is generally used as a project selection technique.
A project that will be used by users throughout the enterprise.
(a) Resources such as servers, specialized test equipment, or additional PCs that are required for a project. (b) One of the categories of project resources. It includes test tools, servers, PCs, or other related items required to complete the project.
A technique used in project selection, determining estimates, and determining other related project information that relies on the knowledge of those with expertise on the requested subject matter. Expert judgment can come from stakeholders, other departments, consultants, team members, vendors, or industry groups.
A type of dependency where a relationship between a project task and a factor outside the project, such as weather conditions, drives the scheduling of that task.
Internal rate of return (IRR)
The discount rate when the present value of the cash inflows equals the original investment. Projects with higher IRR values are generally considered better than projects with lower IRR values. Assumes that cash inflows are reinvested at the IRR value.
Lines of communication
A mathematical formula that determines the number of lines of communication between participants in a meeting. The formula is n (n - 1) / 2, where n represents the number of participants.
A rate used for cost estimating of human resources that includes a percentage of the salary to cover employee benefits, such as medical, disability, or pension plans.
Net present value (NPV)
Evaluation of the cash inflows using the discounted cash flow technique, which is applied to each period the inflows are expected. The total present value of the cash flows is deducted from the initial investment; this assumes that cash inflows are reinvested at the cost of capital. It is similar to discounted cash flows.
The length of time it takes a company to recover the initial cost of producing the product or service of the project.
Temporary in nature, with a definite start and end date; creates a unique product, service, or result. It is completed when the goals and objectives of the project have been met and signed off on by the stakeholders.
Project Management Institute (PMI)
The world's leading professional project management association.
Project management knowledge areas
The nine project management groupings, or Knowledge Areas, that bring together common or related processes. They are Integration, Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, Human Resource, Communications, Risk, and Procurement.
Project management office (PMO)
Established by organizations to create and maintain procedures and standards for project management methodologies to be used throughout the organization.
The person responsible for applying the skills, knowledge, and project management tools and techniques to the project activities to successfully complete the project objectives.
Project performance indicators
Measures that the project manager uses to determine whether the project is on track, such as any deviation from the baseline schedule or the baseline budget.
A document, or assortment of documents, that constitutes what the project is, what the project will deliver, and how all the processes will be managed. Used as the guideline throughout the project Executing and Controlling phases to track and measure project performance and to make future project decisions. Also used as a communication and information tool for stakeholders, team members, and management.
A formal presentation by the project manager or project team members to the sponsor, the client, and the other executive stakeholders.
Determines the start and finish dates for project activities and assigns resources to the activities.
Used to determine which proposed projects are approved to move forward.
An organizational structure focused on projects. Project managers generally have ultimate authority over the project, and sometimes supporting departments such as human resources and accounting might report to the project manager. Project managers are responsible for making project decisions and acquiring and assigning resources.
Describe lessons learned.
Lessons learned describe the successes and failures of the project and should never be used to place blame.
In which project process group is the project charter document created?
Name the project process group that begins when the project charter is approved.
This system assures the project doesn't deviate from the planned requirements.
Change control system
Name the term that describes processes that are repeated.
What type of requirement describes the elements required for a business process?
Which should come first, the project scope or the project charter?
The project charter
The person in charge of understanding the business unit's needs when assessing a project request. The business analyst might be assigned directly from the business unit itself or may be part of the IT organization.
Formally documents components of the project assessment, including a description of the analysis method and the results.
Business process reengineering
Applying changes to an IT system and putting those elements into place based on a project request and a business analyst's examination of the workflow—how people handle their work relative to the request.
The requirements that describe how the business objectives of the project will be met.
Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)
Describes a software application that is purchased from a reseller, vendor, or manufacturer.
These explain the major characteristics of the product and describe the relationship between the business need and the product requested. This is also referred to as a product description.
The first process in a project life cycle and the first of the five project process groups. This is the formal acknowledgment that the project should begin. The primary result of this process is the project charter.
Multiple business unit project
A project that is initiated by multiple business units.
The person who fully understands, believes in, and espouses the benefits of the project to the organization. This is the cheerleader for the project.
An official, written acknowledgment and recognition that a project exists. It's signed by the project sponsor and gives the project manager authority to assign organizational resources to the work of the project.
The formal acceptance of a project and the activities required to formally end the project work.
Documents the key characteristics of the product or service that will be created by the project.
Carrying out the project plan. Activities are clarified, the work is authorized to begin, resources are committed and assigned to activities, and the product or service of the project is created. The largest portion of the project budget will be spent during this process.
Statement of work (SOW)
Contains the details of a procurement item in clear, concise terms and includes the project objectives, a description of the work of the project, and concise specifications of the product or services required.
Also known as nonfunctional requirements, the product characteristics needed for the product to perform the functional requirements. Technical requirements typically refer to information technology-related projects. They are typically the elements and functions that happen behind the scenes of a program to meet the client's request.
According to CompTIA, time, cost, and quality. Other sources site scope rather than quality in their definitions of the triple constraints.
What is the purpose of the project charter?
The project charter normally approves the project and authorizes it to begin.
What is the lowest level of the WBS?
The work package
These help you determine whether the project is progressing as planned.
Key performance indicators (KPIs)
What describes each of the deliverables and their components, the code of accounts identifier, estimates, resources, and criteria for acceptance?
The WBS dictionary
Which element of the scope statement documents the process and criteria you'll use to determine whether deliverables are complete and satisfactory?
Success criteria, also known as acceptance criteria
Name the purpose of the scope management plan.
It documents the procedures for preparing the project scope statement, in other words, the WBS; defines how the deliverables will be verified; and describes the process for controlling scope change requests.
Name four types of project endings.
Addition, starvation, integration, and extinction
This component of the scope statement documents the deliverables or items that will not be included in the project.
Before assembling the project team, what needs must the project manager assess first?
Skills required by team members
Name the two significant processes you'll perform within the human resources-planning process.
Organizational planning and staff acquisition
This process is where you'll choose the team members or organizations who will work on the project.
What document represents the decomposition of the deliverables and work required for a project?
Work breakdown structure
What are the triple constraints according to CompTIA?
TIme, cost, and quality
Name the major elements of a scope document.
Product description, key deliverables, success and acceptance criteria, key performance indicators, exclusions, assumptions, and constraints
Performing this function on deliverables results in the WBS.
The process of breaking project deliverables down into smaller, manageable components of work so that work packages can be planned and estimated.
Key performance indicators (KPIs)
Help you determine whether the project is on track and progressing as planned by monitoring the project against predetermined criteria.
Order of magnitude
A high-level estimate of the time and cost of a project based on the actual cost and duration of a similar project.
Explains the major characteristics of the product and describes the relationship between the business need and the product. This is also referred to as high-level requirements.
Occurs in the Close Procurements process and determines whether the work of the contract is acceptable and satisfactory.
Documentation in the project charter that includes the reason the project is being undertaken and the business need the project will address.
Project life cycle
The grouping of project phases in a sequential order from the beginning of the project to the close.
Applying skills, knowledge, and project management tools and techniques to fulfill the project requirements.
The minor changes or small additions that are made to the project outside of a formal scope change process that cause project scope to grow and change.
Per the PMBOK Guide, the process of breaking down the major deliverables from the scope statement to create the WBS. For purposes of the CompTIA objectives and exam, scope definition is used in a much broader sense to cover several scope planning elements, including the scope statement and the scope management plan.
Scope management plan
Defines the process for preparing the scope statement and the WBS. This also documents the process that manages project scope and changes to project scope.
The process of defining the scope management plan, the scope statement, and the WBS and WBS dictionary.
Documents the product description, key deliverables, success and acceptance criteria, key performance indicators, exclusions, assumptions, and constraints. The scope statement is used as a baseline for future project decisions.
A process that concerns formally accepting the deliverables of the project and obtaining sign-off that they're complete.
The date when the project manager measures how much has been spent on a specific task.
A way to get diverse groups of people to work together efficiently and effectively. This is the responsibility of the project manager. It can involve activities performed together as a group or individually designed to improve team performance.
Creating an open, encouraging environment for stakeholders to contribute, as well as developing the project team into an effective, functioning, coordinated group.
Work breakdown structure (WBS)
A deliverables-oriented hierarchy that defines the total work of the project. Each level has more detailed information than the previous level.
Work breakdown structure (WBS) dictionary
A document that describes the deliverables and their components, the code of accounts identifier, estimates, resources, criteria for acceptance, and any other information that helps clarify the deliverables.
An activity that cannot start until its predecessor has concluded is said to have what type of logical relationship?
Name the estimating technique that bases estimates on past projects of similar size and scope.
What is the first step in examining a scope deviation request?
Identify the cause.
What is the most often used logical relationship?
Three-point estimates use which three estimates to calculate the average estimate?
Most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic
Placing activities into a logical sequence and determining their dependencies is called what?
Float is the difference in length of time between the early start and late start (or the early finish and late finish) of an activity on the project.
What type of scheduling chart represents task durations on a timeline and typically displays dependencies?
Name the two types of schedule formats used on most projects.
Gantt charts and milestone charts
Name the estimating technique that is a quantitatively based estimating method.
Identifying the activities of the project that need to be performed to produce the product or service of the project.
Assessing the number of work periods needed to complete the project activities. Work periods are usually expressed in hours or days. Large projects might express duration in weeks or months.
A list of all the activities required to complete the work of the project that also includes an identifier code and the WBS code it's associated with. Activities are broken down from the work package level of the WBS.
Sequencing activities in logical order and determining whether dependencies exist among the activities.
An estimating technique that uses the actual duration of a similar, completed activity to determine the duration of the current activity. This is also called top-down estimating.
Costs of quality that cover the activities that keep the product defects from reaching the client, including inspection, testing, and formal quality audits.
Calculating late start and late finish dates by starting at the end of a network diagram and working back through each path until reaching the start of the network diagram. This is part of critical path method (CPM), which is a mathematical technique to develop the project schedule.
This is a schedule compression technique that adds resources to the project to reduce the time it takes to complete the project.
The relationship between project activities.
The type of dependency between two activities and the specific relationship between the activities.
A type of dependency that the project manager and project team choose to impose on the project schedule, such as the use of an established corporate practice.
Document control process
Defines how revisions are made, the version numbering system, and the placement of the version number and revision date.
The use of techniques such as fast-tracking or crashing to shorten the planned duration of a project or to resolve schedule slippage.
The earliest date an activity may finish as logically constrained by the network diagram.
The earliest date an activity may start as logically constrained by the network diagram.
A quality control technique that includes examining, measuring, or testing work results.
Any process that is repeated more than once. The five process groups are repeated throughout the project's life because of change requests, responses to change, corrective action, and so on.
The latest date an activity can complete without impacting the project end date.
The latest date an activity can start without impacting the project end date.
The dependency relationships that may exist between tasks. Finish-to-start is the most common logical relationship.
A type of dependency where the relationship between two tasks is created by the type of work the project requires.
A catchall category of project resources that includes software, utility requirements such as electricity or water, any supplies needed for the project, or other consumable goods.
Calculating theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all project activities.
A depiction of project activities and the interrelationships between these activities.
Precedence diagramming method (PDM)
A network diagramming method that places activities on nodes, which connect to dependent activities using arrows. Also known as activity on node.
A task on the network diagram that occurs before another task.
An investigation at project request time to determine the costs and benefits of the project, as well as examine alternatives to the proposed solution in order to determine the feasibility of carrying out the project.
The final, approved project schedule that is used during project execution to monitor project progress.
The process of documenting and managing changes to the project schedule.
Calculating and preparing the schedule of project activities, which becomes the schedule baseline. It determines activity start and finish dates, finalizes activity sequences and durations, and determines activity duration estimates.
Schedule performance index (SPI)
Measures the progress to date against the progress that was planned. The SPI indicator acts as an efficiency rating. If the result is greater than one, performance is better than expected, and you're ahead of schedule. If it's less than one, performance is less than expected, and you're behind schedule. The formula is SPI = EV / PV.
Any change that is made to the project schedule as part of the ongoing work involved with managing the project.
Schedule variance (SV)
The difference between a task's progress as compared to its estimated progress represented in terms of cost. The formula is SV = EV − PV.
Putting the project activities in the order in which they will take place.
A task on the network diagram that occurs after another task.
An estimating technique that uses actual durations from similar activities on a previous project. This is also referred to as analogous estimating.
What important project meeting is held at the beginning of the Executing process group?
The project kickoff
What chart tracks tasks, resource requirements, and quantity of resources?
Responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)
Describe make-or-buy analysis.
This technique determines whether it is more cost effective to produce the resources in-house (or use existing human resources within the organization) or procure them from an outside vendor.
What type of contract is riskiest to the buyer?
What two things does the project sponsor put into motion at the signing of the project charter?
Authorizes the project and authorizes the use of resources
Name the three constraints you should be aware of in human resource planning.
Labor union agreements, organizational structure, and economic conditions
Name the three types of matrix organizations.
Strong, weak, and balanced
Name four types of documents you could use during the vendor solicitation process.
RFI, RFP, RFQ, and RFB (or IFB)
This procurement document details the deliverables the vendor must provide, the characteristics of the deliverables, and other information similar to the scope statement.
Statement of work (SOW)
Name the formula to calculate the lines of communication.
The formula is n (n - 1) / 2.
This estimating technique calculates the expected value based on the most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic estimates.
Name the components of the communication exchange model.
What plan documents when and how human resources will be added to and released from the project team?
Staffing management plan
Describe some examples of informal communications.
Phone calls, emails, hallway conversations, and impromptu meetings
Describe organizational planning.
Organizational planning is the process of addressing the factors that may impact how you manage your project team; it defines roles and responsibilities for project team members, identifies how the team will be organized, and documents the staffing management plan.
What type of requirement indicates a system process?
Describe some examples of formal communications.
Team status meetings, kickoff meetings, written status reports, and team-building sessions
Name the types of resources planned for in the resource-planning process.
Human, equipment, and material
Name three important purposes for the project kickoff meeting.
To provide a project overview, to review stakeholder expectations, and to review roles and responsibilities
What document is where you'll define the information needs for the project stakeholders including when, how, what format, and frequency?
Name the activities required to properly manage stakeholder expectations.
This involves communicating, resolving issues, improving project performance by implementing change requests, and managing concerns.
Name the three categories of contracts.
Fixed price, cost reimbursable, and time and materials
An event or action believed to be true for planning purposes. Project assumptions should always be documented.
A meeting held by the buyer with potential vendors during the procurement process to allow vendors to ask questions and get clarification on the project.
A contract that states a fixed fee for the work that the vendor will perform.
The amount of time the early start of a task may be delayed without delaying the finish date of the project. Also known as slack time.
A diagram that shows the logical steps that must be performed in order to accomplish an objective. It can also show how the individual elements of a system interrelate.
Planned communications such as project kickoff meetings, team status meetings, written status reports, or team-building sessions.
The process of working from the left to the right of a network diagram in order to calculate early start and early finish dates for each activity.
The people with the background and skills to complete the tasks on the project schedule.
Human resources planning
Defining team member roles and responsibilities, establishing an appropriate structure for team reporting, securing the right team members, and bringing them on the project as needed for the appropriate length of time.
The consequences imposed if a risk event occurs on the project.
Unplanned or ad hoc communications, including phone calls, emails, conversations in the hallway, or impromptu meetings.
Providing stakeholders with information regarding the project in a timely manner via status reports, project meetings, review meetings, email, and so on. The communications management plan is put into action during this process.
Determines the cost effectiveness of producing goods or services in-house vs. procuring them from outside the organization.
An amount of money set aside by upper management to cover future expenses that can't be predicted during project planning.
An organizational structure where employees report to one functional manager and at least one project manager. Functional managers assign employees to projects and carry out administrative duties, while project managers assign tasks associated with the project to team members and execute the project.
A standard of measurement that specifically defines how something will be measured.
A major deliverable or key event in the project used to measure project progress.
Negotiating is a leadership technique and a conflict-resolution technique. Negotiating is the act of two or more parties explaining their needs and coming to a mutual agreement on a resolution.
The process of addressing factors that may impact how to manage a project team, defining roles and responsibilities for project team members, identifying how the project team will be organized, and documenting a staffing management plan.
The process of identifying what goods or services will be purchased from outside the organization. It uses make-or-buy analysis to determine whether goods or services should be purchased outside the organization or produced internally.
A type of responsibility assignment matrix that describes the resources needed for the task and their role for that task using the following descriptors: responsible, accountable, consult, or inform.
A process that defines and documents all the resources needed and the quantity of resources needed to perform project activities, including human, material, and equipment resources.
Resource pool description
A listing of all the job titles within a company or department with a brief description of the job. It may also identify the number of people currently employed in each job title.
A document containing a description of the resources needed from all three resource types for work package items from the WBS.
Responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)
A resource chart that defines the WBS identifier, the resource type needed for the WBS element, and the quantity of resources needed for the task. A WBS is displayed in chart form.
One of the benefit measurement methods used for project selection. It contains a predefined list of criteria against which each project is ranked. Each criterion has a scoring range and a weighting factor. A scoring model can also be used as a tool to select from among competing vendors.
The amount of time allowed to delay the early start of a task without delaying the finish date of the project. This is also known as float time.
A requirement that a product or service must be obtained from a single vendor in government work; also includes justification.
Obtaining bids and proposals from vendors in response to RFPs and similar procurement documents prepared during the solicitation planning process.
An executive in the organization with authority to allocate funds, assign resources, and enforce decisions regarding the project.
Obtaining human resources and assigning them to the project. Human resources may come from inside or outside the organization.
Staffing management plan
Documents when and how human resources will be added to and released from the project team and what they will be working on while they are part of the team.
Time and materials contract
A type of contract where the buyer and the seller agree on a unit rate, such as the hourly rate for a programmer. The total cost is unknown and will depend on the amount of time spent to produce the product.
What type of estimating technique rolls up costs starting from the work package level?
Which project process group involves measuring the work of the project and making sure project team members stay on task and on schedule?
Monitoring and Controlling
What is the longest path through a network diagram?
Name the two types of failure costs.
Internal failure costs and external failure costs
State the purpose for performing quality control.
This involves monitoring work results to determine whether they comply with the standards set out in the quality management plan.
Name the three common causes of variance.
Random variances, known or predictable variances, and variances always present in the process
This funding allocation is set aside by the management team to cover future expenses on the project that can't be planned for.
Name the formula for EAC.
The formula is EAC = AC + ETC.
Describe what occurs when performing administrative closure procedures.
Project documents are gathered and centralized, a post-project review is performed, and the final project closeout report is created.
Consensus on a WBS should be obtained from which group?
What is the term for a symptom that means a risk event is about to occur?
Task estimating by using people who are familiar with the tasks is called what?
Name the process group that obtains sign-off of a successful project.
Name the positive risk response strategies.
Exploit, share, and enhance
Name the two risk analysis techniques.
Qualitative risk analysis and quantitative risk analysis
This is the total, approved, expected cost for the project.
Name the negative risk response strategies.
Avoid, transfer, mitigate, and accept
This quality-planning technique compares and measures similar activities.
What formal document contains all of the plans created during the project process group?
Project management plan
What funding allocation is an amount of money set aside to deal with the cost of possible adverse events?
Actual cost (AC)
The cost to complete a component of work in a given time period. Actual costs include direct and indirect costs.
A type of project ending that occurs when projects evolve into ongoing operations.
Compares previous similar activities to the current project activities to provide a standard to measure performance against. It's often used to derive ideas for quality improvements for the project.
Individually estimating each work package, all of which are then rolled up, or added together, to come up with a total project estimate. This is a very accurate means of estimating, provided the estimates at the work package level are accurate.
Comprehensive project plan
Integrates all planning data into one document that the project manager can use as a guidebook to oversee the project work during the Executing and Controlling phases.
An amount of money or time set aside and dedicated to the project to be used to cover unforeseen costs or time that was not identified as part of the planning process.
A legally binding document that describes the work that will be performed, how the work will be compensated, and any penalties for noncompliance.
The process of monitoring vendor performance and ensuring all the requirements of the contract are met.
The process of completing and settling the terms of the contract and determining whether the work described in the contract was completed accurately and satisfactorily.
An estimating technique that assigns a cost estimate to each work package in the project WBS. This is the most accurate of the cost estimating techniques, which typically falls within −5 percent and +10 percent of the actual budget.
An output or result that must be completed in order to consider the project complete or to move forward to the next phase of the project. Deliverables are tangible and can be measured and easily proved.
The cost if the product fails, including downtime, user support, rework, and scrapping the project.
A schedule compression technique where two activities that were previously scheduled to start sequentially start at the same time. Fast-tracking reduces schedule duration.
Undertaken to determine whether the project is a viable project, the probability of project success, and the viability of the product of the project.
A project task relationship in which the finish of the successor task is dependent on the finish of the predecessor task.
A project task relationship in which the successor task cannot begin until the predecessor task has completed.
Monitoring and Controlling
This project process group is where activities are performed to monitor the progress of the project and determine whether there are variances from the project plan. Corrective actions are taken during this process to get the project back on course.
A quantitatively based estimating technique that is typically calculated by multiplying rate times quantity.
A grouping of related projects that are managed together to capitalize on benefits that couldn't be achieved if the projects were managed separately.
Program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
Calculates the expected value, or weighted average, of critical path tasks to determine project duration by using three estimates: most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic. The PERT calculation is (optimistic + pessimistic + (4 × most likely)) / 6.
Reports from project team members listing the tasks each team member is working on, the current progress of each task, and the work remaining.
Qualitative risk analysis
Determining the impact of identified risks on the project and the probability they'll occur. Aligns risks in a priority order according to their effect on the project objectives.
A potential future event that can have either negative or positive consequences.
The process used to identify and focus on those risks that are the most critical to the success of your project.
Identifying the potential project risks and documenting their characteristics.
A numbered list of risks that are produced during the risk identification process and that are documented within a risk register.
Risk management plan
Details how risk management processes will be implemented, monitored, and controlled throughout the life of the project. It does not define responses to individual risks.
Risk monitoring and control
The process that involves implementing the risk response plan, tracking and monitoring identified risks, and identifying and responding to new risks as they occur.
Identifying, analyzing, and determining how risk events will be managed for a project.
Risk response planning
A process that describes how to reduce threats and take advantage of opportunities, documents the plan for negative and positive risk events, and assigns owners to each risk.
An event that warns a risk is imminent and a response plan should be implemented.
A person or an organization that has something to gain or lose as a result of the project. Most stakeholders have a vested interest in the outcomes of the project.
A task relationship where the finish of the successor task is dependent on the start of its predecessor.
A project task relationship where the start of the successor task depends on the start of the predecessor task.
The total time it takes for a person to complete a task if they did nothing else from the time they started until the task was complete.
The lowest level in a WBS. Team assignments, time estimates, and cost estimates can be made at this level. On very large projects, this level is handed off to subproject managers who develop their own WBS to fulfill the requirements of the work package deliverable.
What are the two keys to a successful rewards and recognition program?
That rewards and recognition are applied consistently and that the reward or recognition is appropriate for the level of effort expended or the results achieved
A well-managed change control process can help stop this phenomenon.
This process formally reviews the project at specific points such as milestone completion or phase completion to determine whether the project should proceed.
Phase gate approvals
What event should you coordinate after completing the project charter and before beginning the scope statement?
The project kickoff meeting
Name the four elements or organizational governance used during the Executing process group.
Standards compliance, internal process compliance, decision oversight, and phase gate approval
Name three types of change requests that occur during the Monitoring and Controlling processes.
Corrective actions, preventive actions, and defect repairs
Which project process group involves performing the work of the project?
Name the three common causes of conflict according to CompTIA.
Competing resource demands, expert judgment, and varying work styles
Which chart type is useful for showing the dependency relationships between tasks?
What is the most important activity a project manager can perform on any project?
Name the six conflict resolution techniques
Smoothing, forcing, compromise, confronting, avoiding, and negotiating
Name the stages of team development.
Forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning
What entity is responsible for reviewing change requests and approving, denying, or delaying their implementation?
The change control board
A conflict-resolution technique that occurs when one party refuses to talk anymore about the issue and physically leaves. This is an example of a lose-lose conflict-resolution technique. This technique is also known as withdrawal.
A conflict-resolution technique where each party involved gives up something to reach a resolution. This is not generally a permanent solution.
This is a conflict-resolution technique where one party forces their solution on the others. This is an example of a win-lose conflict resolution technique.
Proof of concept
A project that undertakes to prove that a specific activity can be done or an idea can be accomplished.
See acceptance criteria.
What is the final, approved schedule that will be used to monitor and track all the work of the project?
What type of change request is implemented to correct or replace components that are substandard or are malfunctioning?
What is the term for a leftover risk after a risk event has occurred or that remains after risk responses have been planned?
What type of change request is implemented to help reduce the probability of a negative risk event?
What are the three types of costs associated with quality?
Prevention, appraisal, and failure
Describe some examples of the environmental factors you should consider during human resource planning.
Organizational factors, technical factors, personnel policies, location and logistics, and interpersonal factors
Describe the purpose of verifying scope.
Verifying scope formally accepts the completed deliverables and obtains sign-off on the deliverables from the stakeholders, indicating they are satisfactory and that they meet stakeholders' expectations.
State the purpose of the change request log.
The change request log records change requests and their dispositions. It should include an identifying number, date, description, requestor, status, and final disposition.
This is the term for a risk that occurs as a result of the original risk event or as a direct result of implementing a risk response.
This type of change request brings the work of the project into alignment with the project plan.
The decision to tolerate the defects that are found as a result of the quality testing. This is also a tool for risk response planning.
The process and the criteria that will be used to determine whether the deliverables are acceptable and satisfactory.
Change control board (CCB)
A board responsible for reviewing and approving, denying, or delaying change requests. The change control board is usually made up of stakeholders, managers, project team members, and others who might have an interest in the project.
Describes the characteristics of the product of the project and ensures the description is accurate and complete. Controls changes to the characteristics of an item and tracks the changes made or requested and their status. It is usually a subset of the change control process in most organizations, or it may serve as the change control system.
A conflict-resolution technique that is also known as problem solving. This is the best way to resolve conflicts and involves fact finding to bear out the solution. This is a win-win conflict-resolution technique.
Constrained optimization models
Decision models that use complex principles of statistics and other mathematical concepts to assess a proposed project.
Anything that either restricts the actions of the project team or dictates the actions of the project team.
A type of change request that typically occurs during the Monitoring and Controlling processes. Corrective actions bring the work of the project back into alignment with the project plan.
Critical path (CP)
The longest path through the project. Activities with zero float are considered critical path tasks.
Critical path method (CPM)
A schedule development method that determines a single early and late start date, early and late finish date, and the float for each activity on the project.
Critical success factor
Elements that must be completed in order for the project to be considered complete. Critical success factors that are not satisfactory can lead to project failure.
The recipient of the product or service created by the project. In some organizations this stakeholder may also be referred to as the client.
A type of change request that typically comes about during the Monitoring and Controlling process group. Defect repairs either correct or replace components that are substandard or are malfunctioning.
Integrated change control
A process that influences the factors that cause change, determines that a change is needed or has happened, and manages and monitors change. All other change control processes are integrated with this process.
A type of project ending where the resources of the project are reassigned or redeployed to other projects or other activities within the organization.
A Quality Control tool and technique that keeps errors from reaching the customer. Prevention is less expensive than having to fix problems after they've occurred.
The cost of activities performed to avoid quality problems, including quality planning, training, and any product or process testing.
A type of change request that usually occur during the Monitoring and Controlling process group. Preventive actions are implemented to help reduce the probability of a negative risk event.
The likelihood a risk event will occur. Probability is expressed as a number between 0.0 and 1.0.
Setting a new project baseline because of substantial changes to the schedule or the budget.
This process is where the project manager gathers and documents the collection of baseline data for the project. Baseline data includes cost, schedule, scope, and quality data. Performance report information is delivered to the stakeholders at project status meetings and steering committee meetings.
Request for proposal (RFP)
A document that is sent out to potential vendors requesting them to provide a proposal on a product or service.
The specifications and characteristics of the goal or deliverable.
An update to the approved start or end date of the schedule baseline, typically a result of approved scope changes.
An action that is taken as a result of quality activities to correct a defect.
The description of the work involved to complete the project. It defines both what is included in the project and what is excluded from the project.
The process of documenting and managing changes to project scope. Any modification to the agreed-upon WBS is considered a scope change. Changes in product scope will require changes to project scope, and scope changes always require schedule changes.
Name the formula for TCPI.
The formula is TCPI = (BAC - EV) / (BAC - AC).
Who is typically responsible for authoring the project charter?
The project manager
Name the process group in which stakeholders have the least amount of influence.
PV (planned value) is the cost of work that has been authorized and budgeted for a work component during a given timeframe. This is a figure used in EVM formulas and is also referred to as budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS).
What costs are included in AC?
Direct and indirect costs
What is it called when you apply more resources to a project in order to complete it more quickly?
Crashing the project
Name the PMI standard that denotes all of the institute's project management wisdom.
A Guide to the PMBOK
A grouping of projects that are working toward a common goal is called what?
AC (actual cost) is the actual cost of completing the work component in a given time period. This is a figure used in EVM formulas.
Some companies have a centralized area where all formal project activities take place. What is this area called?
Project management office (PMO)
Name the formula for CPI.
The formula is CPI = EV / AC.
Explain the purpose for the Distribute Information process.
This process is concerned with getting stakeholders the information about the project in a timely manner. This is accomplished using status reports, project meetings, review meetings, and so on.
Name the formula for CV.
The formula is CV = EV - AC.
Name the formula for SV.
The formula is SV = EV - PV
Name the types of barriers a project manager might face when managing teams.
Time zones, language and communication, cultural, hierarchical, and technological
Name the formula for SPI.
The formula is SPI = EV / PV.
EV (earned value) is the value of the work completed to date as it compares to the budgeted amount (PV). This is a figure used in EVM formulas and is also referred to as the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP).
Describe fast tracking.
Fast tracking is beginning two tasks at the same time that were previously scheduled to begin sequentially.
Name the formula for VAC.
The formula is VAC = BAC - EAC.
ETC is estimate to complete and is the forecast of the cost of all the remaining project work. This figure is usually provided by the project team members.
Describe the purpose for monitoring and controlling risks.
Monitoring and controlling risk involves implementing the risk response plan, tracking and monitoring identified risks, and identifying and responding to new risks as they occur.
Budget at completion (BAC)
The total amount of the project budget for a work package, control account, or schedule activity, or for the project.
A Quality Control technique that shows the relationship between the effects of problems and their causes. This is also known as an Ishikawa diagram and a fishbone diagram.
When team members work together at the same physical location.
Common causes of variances
Variances that come about as a result of circumstances that are common to the process you're performing and are easily controlled at the operational level. The three types of common cause variances are random, known or predictable, and variances that are always present in the process.
Communications management plan
Documents the types of information needs the stakeholders have, when the information should be distributed, and how the information will be delivered.
Determines the communication needs of the stakeholders, when and how the information will be received, and who will receive the information.
A graph of the variance of several samples of the same process over time based on a mean, an upper control limit, and a lower control limit.
The total approved, expected cost of the project created in the planning process. It's used as a comparison to actual project expenses throughout the remainder of the project.
Assigning cost estimates to activities and creating the cost baseline, which measures the performance of the project throughout the project's life.
A process that measures the project spending to date, determines whether changes have occurred to the cost baseline, and takes action to deal with the changes. This process monitors the budget and manages changes to the cost baseline.
Developing an estimation of the cost of resources needed for each project activity.
Cost of quality
The cost of all of the work required to assure the project meets the quality standards. The three costs associated with the cost of quality are prevention costs, appraisal costs, and failure costs.
Cost performance index (CPI)
Measures the value of the work completed at the measurement date against actual cost. This is the most critical of all EVM measurements. The formula is CPI = EV / AC.
The difference between a task's value at the measurement date and its actual cost. The formula is CV = EV - AC.
A commonly used benefit measurement method that calculates the cost of producing the product, service, or result of the project and compares this to the financial gain the project is expected to generate.
Provides the seller with payment for all costs incurred to deliver or produce the product or service requested.
Earned value (EV)
The value of the work completed to date as it compares to the budgeted amount for the work component.
Earned value measurement (EVM)
EVM is a tool and technique of the Cost Control process that compares what you're received or produced as of the measurement date to what you've spent. The three measurements needed to perform earned value measurement are planned value (PV), actual cost (AC), and earned value (EV).
Estimate at completion (EAC)
A forecast of the total cost of the project based on both current project performance and the remaining work. The formula is EAC = AC + ETC.
Estimate to complete (ETC)
The cost estimate for the remaining project work. This estimate is provided by the project team members.
A Quality Control technique that shows the relationship between the effects of problems and their causes. This is also known as a cause-and-effect diagram and fishbone diagram.
A Quality Control technique used to rank importance of a problem based on its frequency of occurrence over time. This diagram is based on the Pareto principle, more commonly referred to as the 80/20 rule, which says that the majority of defects are caused by a small set of problems.
Collecting information regarding project progress and project accomplishments and reporting it to the stakeholders, project team members, management team, and other interested parties. It also makes predictions regarding future project performance.
Planned value (PV)
The cost of work that's been budgeted for an activity during a certain time period.
The process group where the project plans are developed that will be used throughout the project to direct, monitor, and control work results. The primary result of this process is the project plan.
Monitoring work results to see whether they fulfill the quality standards set out in the quality management plan; determines whether the end product conforms to the requirements and product description defined during the planning processes.
Quality management plan
Describes how the project management team will enact the quality policy and documents the resources needed to carry out the quality plan. It describes the responsibilities of the project team in implementing quality and outlines all the processes and procedures the project team and organization will use to satisfy quality requirements.
Identifying the quality standards applicable for the project and how they'll be fulfilled.
Quantitative risk analysis
A complex analysis technique that uses a mathematical approach to numerically analyze the probability and impact of risk events.
Quantitatively based durations
A duration estimate obtained by applying a productivity rate of the resource performing the task.
A Quality Control tool and technique that shows variation in the process over time or shows trends such as improvements or the lack of improvements in the process.
To-complete performance index (TCPI)
The projected performance level that must be achieved in the remaining work of the project in order to satisfy financial or schedule goals. The formula is TCPI = (BAC − EV) / (BAC − AC).
A mathematical technique that can be used to predict future defects based on historical results.
The comparison of planned project results with actual project results. The formula is VAC = BAC − EAC.
Describe post-mortem analysis.
Post-mortem analysis is conducted for any project that is canceled or ends prematurely.
Define how a project ends through starvation.
Starvation happens when the project resources are cut off from the project.
Name the purpose for archiving project documents.
Archiving helps you produce proof the project was accepted and signed off, and it gives others access to the project documents so they can be used as a reference on future projects.
Name the steps to preproject setup.
Identify the project, validate the project, write the project charter, and obtain the approval of the project charter.
Describe product verification.
Product verification is performed in the Close Procurements process and determines whether the work was completed accurately and satisfactorily.
Why is project sign-off important?
Sign-off signals the acceptance of the final product, service, or result of the project and turns the product over to the organization.
What is typically the last document written at the conclusion of a project?
The project close report, which serves as a final project status report
Define how a project ends through extinction.
Extinction occurs when the project has been completed and accepted by the stakeholders.
Define the purpose for the Close Procurements process.
Close Procurements is the process of completing and settling the terms of the contract and documenting acceptance.
What two things are most important when releasing team members from the project?
Communicating with both the team member and their functional manager and providing the team member with a final performance appraisal.
Define how a project ends through integration.
Integration occurs when the resources of the project are distributed to other areas in the organization or assigned to other projects.
Name the process group where project risk is the lowest.
Define how a project ends through addition.
Addition happens when projects evolve into ongoing operations.
Describe a post-project review.
The post-project review is held at the end of the project, and its primary purpose is to collect lessons learned.
What is a major characteristic of a matrix organization?
Matrix organizations are usually organized along department lines, but the project manager is responsible for assigning all project tasks to project team members.
A process that involves gathering and disseminating information to formalize project closure. The completion of each project phase requires Administrative Closure also. The primary purpose of this process is to gather lessons learned and distribute the notice of acceptance.
A process that concerns completing and settling the terms of the contract and documenting its acceptance.
A process that documents the final delivery and acceptance of the project and is where hand-off occurs to the operational unit. Lessons learned are performed during this process, and project team members are released.
This project process group is where the work of the project is performed.
This is a type of project ending that occurs when the project is completed and accepted by the stakeholders.
A form of organizational structure. Functional organizations are traditional organizations with hierarchical reporting structures.
These define what the product of the project will do by focusing on how the end user will interact with the product.
Information gathered throughout the project (and again at the end of a project phase or the end of the project) that documents the successes and failures of the project. This information is used to benefit the current project and future projects.
Operations typically involve ongoing functions that support the production of goods or services. They don't have a beginning or an end.
Performed when a project is canceled or ends prematurely. It describes the reasons for cancellation or failure and documents the deliverables that were completed.
Conducted at the end of the project to document lessons learned.
A type of project ending where resources are cut off from the project.
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