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state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action

primary emotions

emotions that are considered to be universal and biologically based; expressed by facial expressions and include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt

secondary emotions

include all the variations and blends of emotion that vary from one culture to another or that depend on cognitive complexity

Paul Ekman

gathered abundant evidence for the universality of seven basic facial expressions of emotion; suggests an evolutionary piece

facial feedback

chemical loop - facial expressions not only reflect our internal feelings, but also influence them; example - we consciously decide to smile and positive feelings will increase


area of the brain that scrutinizes information for its emotional importance; "fight or flight"

cerebral cortex

area of the brain that generates a more complete picture of a given situation; can override signals sent by the amygdala

mirror neurons

brain cells that fire when a person or animal observes others carrying out an action; involved in empathy, imitation, and reading emotions

mood contagion

the spreading of an emotion from one person to another

epinephrine and norepinephrine

chemical messengers that produce arousal and alertness; released by the adrenal glands during emotional states

Guilty Knowledge Test

series of multiple-choice questions, each offering one relevant answer about a crime under investigation and several neutral answers; designed so that an innocent suspect will not be able to discriminate the neutral choices from the relevant one


the explanations that people make of their own and other people's behavior

display rules

social and cultural rules that regulate when, how, and where a person may express (or suppress) emotions

emotion work

acting out an emotion that we don't really feel because we believe it is socially appropriate or expected

body language

nonverbal signals of body movement, posture, gesture, and gaze

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