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For each mole of glucose (C6H12O6) oxidized by cellular respiration, how many moles of CO2 are released in the citric acid cycle (see the accompanying figure)?
Which of the following events takes place in the electron transport chain?
the harnessing of energy from high-energy electrons derived from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed by the reactions of glycolysis?
Following glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but before the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, the carbon skeleton of glucose has been broken down to CO2 with some net gain of ATP. Most of the energy from the original glucose molecule at that point in the process, however, is stored in the form of which of the following molecules?
Which electron carrier(s) function in the citric acid cycle?
NADH and FADH2
Starting with one molecule of glucose, glycolysis results in the net production of which of the following sets of energy-containing products?
2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
In the presence of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate (1) loses a carbon, which is given off as a molecule of CO2, (2) is oxidized to form a two-carbon compound called acetate, and (3) is bonded to coenzyme A. Which of the following sets of products result from these reactions?
acetyl CoA, NADH, and CO2
Which of the summary statements below describes the results of the following reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.
Which of the following sequences describes the path by which electrons travel downhill energetically in aerobic respiration?
glucose → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) in aerobic cellular respiration?
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?
mitochondrial inner membrane
If pyruvate oxidation is blocked, what will happen to the levels of oxaloacetate and citric acid in the citric acid cycle shown in the accompanying figure?
Oxaloacetate will accumulate and citric acid will decrease.
In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, which results in the production of which of the following sets of molecules?
ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
Which of the following statements describes what happens to a molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction?
It loses electrons and loses potential energy.
Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis?
an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized
What happens when electrons are passed from one atom to a more electronegative atom?
The more electronegative atom is reduced, and energy is released.
High levels of citric acid inhibit the enzyme phosphofructokinase, a key enzyme in glycolysis. Citric acid binds to the enzyme at a different location from the active site. This is an example of _____.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration?
oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle
When a molecule of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a hydrogen atom (not a proton), the molecule becomes _____.
Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?
It does not involve organelles or specialized structures, does not require oxygen, and is present in most organisms.
The synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, using the energy released by movement of protons across the membrane down their electrochemical gradient, is an example of which of the following processes?
coupling of an endergonic reaction to an exergonic reaction
In chemiosmosis, what is the most direct source of energy that is used to convert ADP +Pi to ATP?
energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase, down their electrochemical gradient
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is directly involved in which of the following processes or events?
accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
Which one of the following is formed by the removal of a carbon (as CO2) from a molecule of pyruvate?
During which of the following metabolic processes is most of the CO2 from the catabolism of glucose is released?
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