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U.S History Chapter 11
Terms in this set (46)
The term-meaning the filling of federal government jobs with persons loyal to the party of the president-originated in Andrew Jackson's first term; the system was replaced in the Progressive Era by civil service.
Nickname given to Andrew Jackson.
Martin Van Buren
New York senator, Andrew Jackson's secretary of state and in his second term of office vice-president, and eighth president of the United States.
An innkeeper's daughter and wife of Jackson's secretary of war, John Eaton. Scandal surrounding the death of her first husband caused her to be ostracized by the women of official Washington. Jackson and Van Buren's support of Mrs. Eaton brought about the fall of Jackson's first cabinet.
Maysville Road Bill
Federal funding for a Kentucky road, vetoed by President Andrew Jackson in 1830.
Legislation in which congressmen try to pluck a morsel for their districts.
Concept of invalidation of a federal law within the borders of a state; first expounded in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798), cited by South Carolina in its Ordinance of Nullification (1832) of the Tariff of Abominations, used by southern states to explain their secession from the Union (1861), and cited again by southern states to oppose the Brown v. Board of Education decision (1954).
Tariff of Abominations
(Tariff of 1828) Taxed imported goods at a very high rate; the South hated the tariff because it feared it would provoke Britain to reject American cotton.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina congressman, senator, vice president under John Quincy Adams as well as Andrew Jackson. At first a nationalist, he later became a defender of states rights.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Written in 1828 by Vice-President John C. Calhoun of South Carolina to protest the so-called Tariff of Abominations, which seemed to favor northern industry; introduced the concept of state interposition and became the basis for South Carolina's Nullification Doctrine of 1833.
Another word for nullification whereby a state could interpose state authority and in effect repeal a federal law.
U.S. Senate debate of January 1830 between Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Robert Hayne of South Carolina over nullification and states' rights.
A leading attorney who argued many famous cases in the Supreme Court. Congressman from New Hampshire and senator representing Massachusetts.
President Andrew Jackson's strong criticism of South Carolina's Ordinance of Nullification (1832) as disunionist and potentially treasonous.
Indian Removal Act
(1830) Signed by President Andrew Jackson, the law permitted the negotiation of treaties to obtain the Indians' lands in exchange for their relocation to what would become Oklahoma.
Trail of Tears
Cherokees' own term for their forced march, 1838-39, from the southern Appalachians to Indian lands (later Oklahoma); of 15,000 forced to march, 4,000 died on the way.
Worcester v. Georgia
In 1830 a Georgia law had required whites in the territory to get licenses authorizing their residence there, and to take an oath of allegiance to the state. Two New England missionaries among the Indians refused and were sentenced to four years at hard labor. On appeal their case reached the Supreme Court as Worcester v. Georgia (1832), and the Court held that the Cherokee Nation was "a distinct political community" within which Georgia law had no force. The Georgia law was therefore unconstitutional.
President of the Bank of the United States. U. S. president Andrew Jackson felt the bank held too much financial power, and vetoed a bill to recharter the bank.
In addition to being the first third party, it was the first party to hold a national nominating convention and the first to announce a platform, all of which it accomplished in 1831 when it nominated William Wirt of Maryland for president.
Panic of 1837
Major economic depression lasting about six years; touched off by a British financial crisis and made worse by falling cotton prices, credit and currency problems, and speculation in land, canals, and railroads.
Founded in 1834 to unite factions opposed to President Andrew Jackson, the party favored federal responsibility for internal improvements; the party ceased to exist by the late 1850s, when party members divided over the slavery issue.
Independent Treasury Act
(1840) Promoted by President Martin Van Buren, the measure sought to stabilize the economy by preventing state banks from printing unsecured paper currency and establishing an independent treasury based on specie.
William Henry Harrison
Governor of the Indiana Territories who became a national hero after the Battle of Tippecanoe. The last Whig President, he was also the first to die in office (of pneumonia).
Revolution of 1828
Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" (1828)
universal white manhood suffrage
during times of massive westward movement, there was also movement of the vote; all white adult males, common man with common sense
Nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy
unofficial trusted cabinet of Jackson made up of mostly newspaper editors.
Jackson invites Peggy (now widow) to be WH hostess, Floride Calhoun outraged, John Calhoun draws farther away from Jackson and fairs poorly politically, Martin Van Burren draws closer to Jackson http://quizlet.com/3273583/edit/#add-rowfrom incident.
Cherokee who created a notation for writing the Cherokee language (1770-1843)
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Marshall ruled that the Cherokee had "an unquestionable right" to their lands, but they were "not a foreign state, in the sense of the Constitution" but rather a "domestic, dependent nation" and so could not sue in a United States court over Georgia's voiding their right to self-rule. Was a blow to the Cherokee case, it cast doubt on the constitutionality of Indian Removal Act.
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
1829, CT Samuel Foote called on Congress to stop land sales completely, proposed by eastern factory owners who were afraid a liberal land policy would drain workers to the west
maysville road veto
1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
Jefferson birthday dinner
During the birthday dinner of Jefferson, President Jackson made a toast, ending with the statement,"Our Federal Union,-It must be preserved. The Union, next to our liberty most dear." This statement showed support for Webster's view on the debate. Indirectly opposed Calhoun.
General in the Mexican-War; " Old Fuss and Feathers" ; succeeded in battling his way up to Mexico City by 1847.
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Henry Clay (KY), made the great Missouri compromise, thus getting nickname.
Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich. Vetoed the 2nd Bank charter and withdrew gov't money from the US Banks and put it into "pet banks"
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
Secretary of the Treasury, questioned Jackson's "Pet Bank" method, and was fired.
Second Secretary of the Treasury fired when questioning Jackson's "Pet Bank" strategy.
Third Secretary of the Treasury who gladly followed through with Jackson's "Pet Bank" scheme, and eventually became Chief Justice after John Marshall's Death.
issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
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