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Exam 2 Chapter 7 Persuasion
Terms in this set (31)
The process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behavior.
TWO PATHS TO PERSUASION
Central route to persuasion -occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
It is explicit and reflective.
Peripheral route to persuasion -occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
It is implicit and automatic.
FOUR ELEMENTS OF PERSUASION
1. The communicator
2.The message content
3.How the message is communicated
Effective persuaders know how to convey a message effectively.
CREDIBILITY -delayed persuasion (forget the source) = sleeper effect
◦PERCEIVED EXPERTISE: congenial-views-seem-more-expert phenomenon; if the audience agrees with you makes you seem smart
◦PERCEIVED TRUSTWORTHINESS -we agree w/those we trust; start with information, not arguments
◦SPEAKING STYLE -speak confidently and fluidly
ATTRACTIVENESS AND LIKING -
◦PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS -arguments are more influential when said by beautiful people
◦SIMILARITY -we tend to like people who are like us, and are influenced by them
What is said? Information included.
Reason Versus Emotion
- One-sided Versus Two-sided Appeals
Primacy Versus Recency
REASON VERSUS EMOTION
The effect of good feelings
Messages are more persuasive when associated with good feelings
Products associated with humor are better liked
The effect of arousing fear
The more vulnerable and frightened people feel, the more they respond
If message leads to perceive a solution it works better
what immediately precedes it, can make a big difference
Low ball technique
ONE-SIDED VERSUS TWO-SIDED VIEWS
If audience will be exposed to opposing views, offer a two-sided appeal.
For optimists, positive persuasion works best
For pessimists, negative persuasion is more effective
PRIMACY VERSUS RECENCY
Primacy effect -information presented early is most persuasive
When the two messages are back-to-back, followed by a time gap, the primacy effect usually occurs
Recency effect -information presented last has the most influence.
Takes place when enough time separates the 2 messages and when the audience commits itself soon after the 2ndmessage
PRIMACY EFFECT RECENCY EFFECT
GO FIRST OR LAST FOR BEST RESULTS
BEST ADVISE FOR PERSUASION
1.Use logic or emotion, depending on the audience and the message
2.Ask a small favor before making a big request
3.Offer two-sided messages that challenge arguments against your message
4.Go first or last, for best results
CHANNEL OF COMMUNICATION
The way the message is delivered: whether face-to-face, in writing, on film, or another way.
ACTIVE VERSUS PASSIVE
ACTIVE EXPERIENCE:strengthens attitudes; interactive websites seem to be more effective in message persuading.
PASSIVE RECEPTION:Written and visual appeals are both passive, but advertising helps make somethingunfamiliar into something familiar
Repeated clichés can cover complex realities.
Even repeatedly saying that a consumer claim is false may lead people later to misremember it as true.
When we act, attitudes are strengthened
Experience-based attitudes are more stable, more confident, and less vulnerable to attack
In the U. S. The candidate with more money wins 91% of the time
Advertising exposure helps make an unfamiliar candidate into a familiar candidate.
Mere exposure to unfamiliar stimuli breeds liking
MERE REPETITION EFFECT
Mere repetition can make things believable.
Mere repetition serves to increase fluency.
NEWS MEDIA RETRACTIONS
Retractions of previously provided information rarely works, people tend to remember the original story.
PERSONAL VERSUS MEDIA INFLUENCE
Studies show the major influence is not the media but our contact with people.
The two-step flow: flows from media to opinion leaders-"the influential s"-to everyone else. Politicians seek to influence these opinion leaders.
Studies comparing different media find that the more lifelike the media, the message is more persuasive.
Order of persuasiveness: live, videotaped, audio-taped, and written.
INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN
Communication flows from adults to children. But appeals are not that strong.
The influence of adults on children is stronger when modeling the behavior.
To whom it is said.
Two audience characteristics:
Two explanations for age differences:
1.A life cycle explanation -attitudes change as people grow older
2.A generational explanation -older adults' attitudes are different than those of today's adults
What are they thinking?
The crucial aspect of central route persuasion is not the message but the responses it evokes in a person's mind.
Forewarned is forearmed -if you care enough to counter argue, you develop arguments for every situation.
Distraction disarms counter arguing (visual image distracts from the word message).
Uninvolved audiences use peripheral cues.
STRENGTHENING PERSONAL COMMITMENT
REAL-LIFE APPLICATIONS: INOCULATION PROGRAMS
◦Inoculating children against peer pressure to smoke
◦Inoculating children against the influence of advertising
Exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available.
RESISTANCE TO BRAINWASHING
Not just stronger indoctrination into one's current beliefs.
Do not create a "germ-free ideological environment".
People who live among diverse views become more likely to modify their views only in response to credible arguments.
A challenge to one's views, if refuted, is more likely to solidify one's position.
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