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Ap World: Period 3 Vocab
Terms in this set (50)
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, they overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad. It flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created.
Focused more on administration than conquering. Had a bureaucracy that any Muslim could be a part of.
The Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from Western Africa southward and eastward, spreading their culture, agricultural techniques, iron use, language, etc...
-Resisted and delayed the conversion to Islam
-A small groups of zealous Spanish Christians that insulted the prophet (Muhammad)
Also called the Black Death; is believed to be the deadly disease that spread through Asia and Europe and killed more than a third of the people in parts of China and Europe.
-Inn or rest station for caravans
-Inn with a central courtyard for travelers in the desert regions of Asia or North Africa.
-Traditional Arab sailing vessel (Emerged in middle east) with one or more lateen sails.
-Sturdy enough to carry heavy items, like fruit, along the coasts of the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, India and East Africa.
-vessel of commerce and used in Indian ocean
-West African state that supplied the majority of the world's gold from 500 CE-1400's
-First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Gold and salt trade
-Built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south
-nearly 1200 miles long.
-waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangtze Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.
- helped transport the rice in the south to the north.
-An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany
-League founded by northern German merchants to protect their trade interests, dominates commercial activity in Europe for most of the middle ages
-Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
-Arab traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records
-Noted how Muslim Turkish women had fewer restrictions than Muslim Arab women
Inca Road System
-A royal network for the Incas,
-trade, goods, communication
-systems which people were runners and animals were used as vehicles
-increased trade and communication
-good for communication, trade, and moving troops
-Founded by the prophet Muhammad who revealed the teachings of Allah that are written down in the Qura'an
-Means "total submission to the will of god"
-A monarchy established in present day Russia
-one of the 3rd wave civilizations
-It was greatly influenced by Byzantine and Greek Mediterranean civilizations
-patriarchy, slavery, stratification, very diverse population
-Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula
-Traditionally a center for trade among the southeastern Asian islands.
-Flourishing trading city in Malaya; established a trading empire after the fall of Shrivijaya.
The kingdom in West Africa that followed the Kingdom of Ghana; its wealth is also based on gold trade in trans-Saharan trade; this kingdom encouraged the spread of Islam.
-Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa
Italian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
-Describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty
-Mixture of Daoism or Buddhism with Confucianism
legal currency issued on paper; it developed in China as a convenient alternative to metal coins
The period of approximately 150 years of relative peace and stability created by the Mongol Empire.
Sogdian merchant communities
-Buddhism, Islam, and Indian and East Asian cultures influenced the Sogdian culture
-exhibited cosmopolitan enthusiasm for Buddhist teachings, religious arts from northern India, and a mixture of East Asian and Islamic taste in dress
-syllabic script of the Sogdians was adopted and worked into Turkic writing as their culture spread through trading in the Silk Road.
Successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
region along east coast of Africa, part of Indian Ocean trade route, Influenced by Islam
As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major city in the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning.
Became a center of wealth and learning with a library and university
Long ships that allowed the Vikings to move down the Volga river and establish Kiev as a trade center
A famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. He became famous for his 17 year trip to India and back to learn about Buddhism.
A Muslim-ruled region in what is now Spain, established by the Berbers in the eighth century A.D.
-They settled in the valley of Mexico before Cortes claimed the land for Spain.
-Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region.
-Worshiped many gods (polytheistic).
-Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
-Eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward
-Capital: Constantinople, center for trade
-The empire fell to the Ottomans who sacked the capital
-caesaropapism was used
-A political-religious system in which the secular king/emperor is also head of the religious establishment, as in the Byzantine Empire
-central to the church versus state controversy in medieval Europe.
Code of Justinian
-a codification of Roman law that kept ancient Roman legal principles alive
-became the system of laws for the Byzantine Empire
-replaced the 12 Tables roman law code
-an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
-a term used by Muslims to refer to those countries where Muslims can practice their religion freely.
Equal Field System
-Agricultural reform favoring the peasants (under the Tang dynasty in China)
-Inheritance system where 1/5 of the land when to the peasant's descendants and the rest went to the government.
-Goal: to ensure an equitable distribution of land
-Allotted land to individuals and their families according to land's fertility and the recipients' needs.
Female monastic orders
Women in Christianity could be nuns ,and in Buddhism women could be monks or nuns.
-System of giving land to others in exchange for loyalty, services, and protection
-Constant warfare made warriors an important class (knights and samurai).
-Japanese feudalism stressed morality and filial piety, an obligation of warriors to protect their region and its people.
-In Europe, it was based on imperial laws and customs, a reciprocity between lord and his vassals.
-The Western Hemisphere's largest imperial state
-built by a relatively small community of Quechua-speaking people
-stretched along the Andes Mountains and contained perhaps 10 million people.
-The vast and sophisticated Peruvian empire centered at the capital city of Cuzco
-Ruler of Mali
-His extravagant pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
-established trade routes to the Middle East.
-on the way there, he spread enormous amounts of gold showing the wealth of Mali; on the way back, he brought back education and Islamic culture.
-Regions held under control of Mongol Khans including Khanates of Chaghati, Golden Horde, the Great Khan and Ilkhanate of Persia.
-Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
-Empire in southern China while the Jin people controlled the north.
-Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics
-The Chinese dynasty that placed much more emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and arts other than military.
-China saw many important inventions: magnetic compass; had a navy
-traded with india and persia
-landscape black and white paintings
-The short dynasty between the Han and the Tang
-built the Grand Canal
-strengthened the government
-introduced Buddhism to China
-like the Qin Dynasty in imposing tight political discipline
Sunni Shia split
Ruler of Islamic community should be:
-Sunni = rightly guided person
-Shi'a = blood relative of Muhammad
Muslims believe no one stands between a person and Allah while Shi'a Muslims believe imams must serve as an interpreter of Allah.
-the 7th century "great change" reforms that established the centralized Japanese state
-Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor
-included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
-Referred to as China's Golden age -expanded from Vietnam to Manchuria
-The Chinese dynasty that was much like the Han, who used Confucianism. This dynasty had the equal-field system, a bureaucracy based on merit, and a Confucian education system.
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Western European Christians to reclaim control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
A system in which countries in East and Southeast Asia not under the direct control of empires based in China nevertheless acknowledged the superiority of the emperors in China
-First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs
-ruled one of the largest empires in history (extended from Spain to India)
-Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate
-had a bureaucracy with only Arab Muslims able to be a part of it.
-Chinese admiral and naval explorer during the Ming Dynasty, he led great voyages that spread China's fame throughout Asia
-An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle to take a series of state voyages that took gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
New Agricultural Techniques
-Chinampa: Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields. A floating garden on which the Aztec grew crops
-Champa Rice: a quick-maturing, drought resistant rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season.
Originally introduced from India, sent to China as a tribute gift
-Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
-Economic groups that functioned as jati by controlling prices, output, workers, and competition for a specific product.
-Incan system for payment of taxes with labor
-The system recruiting workers for particularly difficult and dangerous chores that free laborers would not accept.
-Type of labor (commonly used in feudal systems) in which the laborers work the land in return for protection but they are bound to the land and are not allowed to leave
-Early Medieval Europe
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