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The notes turned into flashcards for studying purposes
Anatomy-divided into two portions:
1.) upper respiratory tract: outside of cavity (like a tree trunk) ex: nose, pharynx, larynx
2.) Lower Respiratory Tract: inside of cavity (like branches of a tree) ex: trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
Anatomy- Accessory Structures
oral cavity, rib cage, respiratory muscle
Anatomy- Entire respiratory tract is lined with what?
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium (mucus blanket) until you get to the terminal bronchioles
Anatomy-How much mucus is formed by the respiratory tract?
125 mL mucus/day
Anatomy-What does smoking cigarettes do to the cilia in the respiratory tract?
air distribution, gas exchange, filters, warms+humidifies air, influences sound production, plays a role in
Some respiratory system structures play a role with what sense?
The respiratory system plays a role in the regulation of what in the body?
What makes up the external portion of the nose?
bony and cartilaginous framework covered with skin (many sebaceous glands)
what is the path of the nose starting with the nostrils and ending with the nasal passages?
nostrils (anterior nares) open into vestibule which contains coarse hairs that help to block entry of dust, which opens into the respiratory portion of each nasal passage
Internal Portion of the Nose
nasal cavity lies between the mouth (palative bone) and cranial cavity (ethmoid bone)
ethmoid bone (internal portion of nose)
small openings for branches of olfactory nerve
nasal septum (internal portion of nose)
turbinates (internal portion of nose)
separate each nasal cavity into 3 passageways (superior, middle and inferior meati)
posterior nares (internal portion of nose)
openings which allow air to pass from nasal cavity into pharynx
Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium contains ____ that produce ______, also has a ___ ___ ___.
goblet cells, mucus, rich blood stores
____ ___ in nasal cavity detect vaporizes chemicals and are located where in the nasal cavity?
Located on the roof of the nasal cavity, Olfactory receptors
air passageway filters, warms + humidifies air, chemically examines all for harmful substances, sense of smell
4 pairs of air containing spaces that open, or drain into the nasal cavity
How are paranasal sinuses named?
by the skull bones in which they are located
What are the functions of paranasal functions
lighten skull and provide resonance for voice
Anatomy of the pharynx (throat)
12.5cm (5") long, located in front of cervical vertebrae, made of muscle, lined with a mucus membrane
What are the three divisions of the Pharynx?
posterior nares to the soft palate, contains pharyngeal tonsils, soft palate covers during swallowing, opening of Eustachian tubes
soft palate to hyoid bone, ring of lymphatic tissue to destroy pathogens
hyoid to esophagus, opens anteriorly to larynx and posteriorly to esophagus
Main function of the Pharynx
common pathway for respiratory and digestive tract
the pharynx affects ___
Tonsils do what to pathogens?
trap and destroy them
What parts of the pharynx contract during swallowing?
oropharynx and laryngopharynx
The larynx is also known as the what?
The larynx is located ____ and surrounded by the ___ and ___
between the pharynx and the trachea, surrounded by the thyroid gland and carotid arteries
What makes up the structure of the larynx and what does it do?
firm cartilage to keep air passageways open
What is the function of the epiglottis?
prevents aspiration of food
What are the three functions of the larynx?
warms, filters, humidifies air
What structure protects the airway?
The trachea is also know as the what?
What is the approximate length and diameter of the trachea?
11cm (4.5") long
approx. 2.5cm (1") in diameter
the trachea runs from the __ to the ___
larynx to the primary bronchi
What is the trachea made of and why?
Smooth ms and elastic CT embedded with C-shaped rings of cartilage (to keep the trachea open).
Openings at the back of the cartilage surrounding the trachea allow what to happen?
expansion of the trachea to allow food to pass through
What moves the food particles and mucus from the trachea towards the pharynx?
What is the main function of the trachea?
What is the function of the Bronchial tree?
to distribute air to the alveoli
What are the four "levels"/parts of the Bronchial tree?
What are the Primary Bronchi/where are they located?
two branches at the base of the trachea
The right primary bronchi is __ than the left, thus is it more prone to what?
larger than the left causing it to be more prone to aspiration
How many secondary bronchi are in the right and left lungs?
3 in the right
2 in the left
The tertiary bronchi branch of of what?
the secondary bronchi
The cartilaginous rings that partially surround the trachea end when they reach the ___.
What are bronchioles made of and what does this allow them to do?
a complete layer of circular smooth ms which allows change in diameter and resistance to air flow
In the bronchial tree how do inhaled irritants affect the bronchioles?
cause them to narrow
How does epinephrine effect the broncioles in the bronchiole tree?
causes them to dilate
Bronchioles rely on what to clean up debris?
The alveoli are the what?
Functional units of the lungs
Approximately how many alveoli does and adult have in their lungs?
The alveoli are a primary site for what?
The alveoli are made of ___ cells which for what type of tissue?
made of alveolar type 2 cells which form simple squamous epithelium
SSE in the alveioli promote what with the neighboring pulmonary capillaries?
Alveoli are lined with ___ which promotes what?
a thin layer of tissue fluid
promotes gas exchange
The tissue fluid that lines the Alveoli are coated with what?
Decreased surface tension in the alveoli is what between what?
is a force of attraction between H2O molecules
The surfactant lining the Alveoli keep what from happening?
keeps the alveoli from collapsing/sticking shut as air moves in and out
The tissue fluid in the alveoli is produced when in fetal development?
the last two months
The spaces between the alveoli contain what type of tissue to promote what?
contain elastic CT to promote exhalation
Alveoli have these to destroy particles ___?
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ___ and ___ (the barrier is only .004mm thick)
alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium
The respiratory membrane allows efficient exchange of ___ and ___.
O2 and CO2
What is the shape of the lungs?
Where do the ribs lie in the human body?
just above clavicles down to the diaphragm
Lungs are protected by what?
What divides the lungs into lobes?
how many lobes does the right lung have?
how many lobes does the left lung have?
The left lung has a medial concavity, why?
allows room for the mediastium
lines the thoracic cacity
lies on the surface of the lungs
contains serous fluid to prevent friction
The two main functions of the lungs:
air distribution and gas exchange
The diaphragm is supplied by what nerve?
What is the shape of the diaphragm and what does it separate?
dome-shaped muscle that separates thoracic and abdominal cavities
the diaphragm does what durring contraction?
flattens and descends
Intercostal muscles are supplied by what nerves?
function of external intercostal muscles:
pull the ribs up and outward
function of internal intercostal muslces:
pull the ribs down and inward
Mechanisms of Breathing: Ventilation
amount of air in and out of alveoli
Inhalation/Inspiration is what type of process?
Expiration/Exhalation is what type of process?
What happens in the inhalation/inspiration mechanism of breathing?
brain sends impulses to respiratory ms and the thoracic cavity increases in length and diameter
What happens in the expiration/exhalation mechanism of breathing?
impulses from brain decrease causing respiratory muscles to relax. Elastic tissue recoils and alveoli are compressed
Forceful exhalation occurs via what?
During inhalation the lungs expand and what happens to the intrapulmonic pressure?
it falls below atmospheric pressure
The abitlity of tissue in the lungs to ___ is essential
Air enters the system until what?
intrapulmonic pressure equals atmospheric pressure
During exhalation the lungs are compressed when what happens?
The thorax recoils
Air is forced out of the lungs until when?
the intrapulmonic pressure equals the atmospheric pressure
the pressure exerted by 1 gas in a mixture of gases or in a liquid
The percentage of O2 and CO2 in inhaled air is what?
What is the percentage of O2 and CO2 in exhaled air?
External Respiration: Alveolar air PO2:
External Respiration: Arterial Blood PO2:
External Respiration: Venous Blood PO2:
The alveolar PO2 is ___ than the PO2 of the incoming blood
What gas exits the pulmonary capillaries and enters the alveoli due to differences in PO2?
What happens if alveolar ventilation is inadequate?
arterioles redirect blood flow to where PO2 is higher
What happens in the arterioles if alveolar ventilation is increased?
the arterioles dilate to increase blood flow to these capillaries
Internal Respiration: Arterial Blood PO2:
Internal Respiration: Intersitial fluid PO2:
Internal Respiration: Capillary PO2:
as low as 1 mmHg
Capillary PO2 is greater than tissue PO2 because why?
O2 diffuses down the pressure gradient
CO2 ____ tissues and ___ capillaries due to differences in what?
exits and enters and due to differences in PO2
What is the Bohr Effect?
increased PO2 and decreased affinity between hemoglobin and O2
What is the Haldare Effect?
increased CO2 loading due to drop in O2 levels
What is hypoxia and what does it result in?
inadequate O2 delivery to tissues, results in cyanosis
Hypoxia is caused due to what? (4 things)
1.Anemia: decreased in RBC's or hemoglobin
2. Ischemia: impaired circulation
3. Histotoxins:body cells unable to use O2
4. Hypoxemia:decrease in arterial PO2
Pulmonary Volumes: Tidal Volume:
amount of air in a normal inhalation+exhalation
Pulmonary Volumes: Minute Respiratory Volume:
amount of air inhaled+exhaled in 1 minute
Pulmonary Volumes: Inspiratory Reserve:
amount of air beyond tidal volume, that can be taken in with the deepest possible inhalation
Pulmonary Volumes: Expiratory Reserve:
amount of air beyond tidal volume that canbe expelled with the most forceful exhalation
Pulmonary Volumes: Vital Capacity:
amount of air involved in the deepest inhalation followed by the most forceful exhalation
Pulmonary Volumes: Residual Air:
amount of air remaining in lungs after the most forceful exhalation, it ensures that there is some air in the lungs at all times for exchange of gases between breaths
Pulmonary Volumes: Anatomical Dead Space:
portion of air that doesn't get to alveoli and can't take place in gas exchange (approx 30% of tidal volume)
If alveoli are prevented from gas exchange they become part of what?
Pulmonary Volumes: Physiological Dead Space:
Anatomical dead space+Alveolar dead space