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Anatomy-divided into two portions:

1.) upper respiratory tract: outside of cavity (like a tree trunk) ex: nose, pharynx, larynx
2.) Lower Respiratory Tract: inside of cavity (like branches of a tree) ex: trachea, bronchial tree, lungs

Anatomy- Accessory Structures

oral cavity, rib cage, respiratory muscle

Anatomy- Entire respiratory tract is lined with what?

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium (mucus blanket) until you get to the terminal bronchioles

Anatomy-How much mucus is formed by the respiratory tract?

125 mL mucus/day

Anatomy-What does smoking cigarettes do to the cilia in the respiratory tract?

paralyzes them

Anatomy-Primary Functions

air distribution, gas exchange, filters, warms+humidifies air, influences sound production, plays a role in

Some respiratory system structures play a role with what sense?


The respiratory system plays a role in the regulation of what in the body?

pH (homeostasis)

What makes up the external portion of the nose?

bony and cartilaginous framework covered with skin (many sebaceous glands)

what is the path of the nose starting with the nostrils and ending with the nasal passages?

nostrils (anterior nares) open into vestibule which contains coarse hairs that help to block entry of dust, which opens into the respiratory portion of each nasal passage

Internal Portion of the Nose

nasal cavity lies between the mouth (palative bone) and cranial cavity (ethmoid bone)

ethmoid bone (internal portion of nose)

small openings for branches of olfactory nerve

nasal septum (internal portion of nose)

midline portion

turbinates (internal portion of nose)

separate each nasal cavity into 3 passageways (superior, middle and inferior meati)

posterior nares (internal portion of nose)

openings which allow air to pass from nasal cavity into pharynx

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium contains ____ that produce ______, also has a ___ ___ ___.

goblet cells, mucus, rich blood stores

____ ___ in nasal cavity detect vaporizes chemicals and are located where in the nasal cavity?

Located on the roof of the nasal cavity, Olfactory receptors

Physiology- Functions

air passageway filters, warms + humidifies air, chemically examines all for harmful substances, sense of smell

Paranasal Sinuses

4 pairs of air containing spaces that open, or drain into the nasal cavity

How are paranasal sinuses named?

by the skull bones in which they are located

What are the functions of paranasal functions

lighten skull and provide resonance for voice

Anatomy of the pharynx (throat)

12.5cm (5") long, located in front of cervical vertebrae, made of muscle, lined with a mucus membrane

What are the three divisions of the Pharynx?

1.) nasopharynx
2.) oropharynx
3.) laryngopharynx


posterior nares to the soft palate, contains pharyngeal tonsils, soft palate covers during swallowing, opening of Eustachian tubes

Enlarged tonsils



soft palate to hyoid bone, ring of lymphatic tissue to destroy pathogens


hyoid to esophagus, opens anteriorly to larynx and posteriorly to esophagus

Main function of the Pharynx

common pathway for respiratory and digestive tract

the pharynx affects ___

phonation (speech)

Tonsils do what to pathogens?

trap and destroy them

What parts of the pharynx contract during swallowing?

oropharynx and laryngopharynx

The larynx is also known as the what?


The larynx is located ____ and surrounded by the ___ and ___

between the pharynx and the trachea, surrounded by the thyroid gland and carotid arteries

What makes up the structure of the larynx and what does it do?

firm cartilage to keep air passageways open

What is the function of the epiglottis?

prevents aspiration of food

What are the three functions of the larynx?

air passageways
voice production
warms, filters, humidifies air

What structure protects the airway?


The trachea is also know as the what?


What is the approximate length and diameter of the trachea?

11cm (4.5") long
approx. 2.5cm (1") in diameter

the trachea runs from the __ to the ___

larynx to the primary bronchi

What is the trachea made of and why?

Smooth ms and elastic CT embedded with C-shaped rings of cartilage (to keep the trachea open).

Openings at the back of the cartilage surrounding the trachea allow what to happen?

expansion of the trachea to allow food to pass through

What moves the food particles and mucus from the trachea towards the pharynx?


What is the main function of the trachea?

air passageway

What is the function of the Bronchial tree?

to distribute air to the alveoli

What are the four "levels"/parts of the Bronchial tree?

1.Primary Bronchi
2.Secondary Bronchi
3.Tertiary Bronchi
4. Bronchioles

What are the Primary Bronchi/where are they located?

two branches at the base of the trachea

The right primary bronchi is __ than the left, thus is it more prone to what?

larger than the left causing it to be more prone to aspiration

How many secondary bronchi are in the right and left lungs?

3 in the right
2 in the left

The tertiary bronchi branch of of what?

the secondary bronchi

The cartilaginous rings that partially surround the trachea end when they reach the ___.


What are bronchioles made of and what does this allow them to do?

a complete layer of circular smooth ms which allows change in diameter and resistance to air flow

In the bronchial tree how do inhaled irritants affect the bronchioles?

cause them to narrow

How does epinephrine effect the broncioles in the bronchiole tree?

causes them to dilate

Bronchioles rely on what to clean up debris?


The alveoli are the what?

Functional units of the lungs

Approximately how many alveoli does and adult have in their lungs?

30 million

The alveoli are a primary site for what?

gas exchange

The alveoli are made of ___ cells which for what type of tissue?

made of alveolar type 2 cells which form simple squamous epithelium

SSE in the alveioli promote what with the neighboring pulmonary capillaries?


Alveoli are lined with ___ which promotes what?

a thin layer of tissue fluid
promotes gas exchange

The tissue fluid that lines the Alveoli are coated with what?


Decreased surface tension in the alveoli is what between what?

is a force of attraction between H2O molecules

The surfactant lining the Alveoli keep what from happening?

keeps the alveoli from collapsing/sticking shut as air moves in and out

The tissue fluid in the alveoli is produced when in fetal development?

the last two months

The spaces between the alveoli contain what type of tissue to promote what?

contain elastic CT to promote exhalation

Alveoli have these to destroy particles ___?


The respiratory membrane is a combination of ___ and ___ (the barrier is only .004mm thick)

alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium

The respiratory membrane allows efficient exchange of ___ and ___.

O2 and CO2

What is the shape of the lungs?


Where do the ribs lie in the human body?

just above clavicles down to the diaphragm

Lungs are protected by what?


What divides the lungs into lobes?


how many lobes does the right lung have?


how many lobes does the left lung have?


The left lung has a medial concavity, why?

allows room for the mediastium

Parietal Pleura

lines the thoracic cacity

Visceral Pleura

lies on the surface of the lungs

Pleural Space

contains serous fluid to prevent friction

The two main functions of the lungs:

air distribution and gas exchange

The diaphragm is supplied by what nerve?

phrenic nerve

What is the shape of the diaphragm and what does it separate?

dome-shaped muscle that separates thoracic and abdominal cavities

the diaphragm does what durring contraction?

flattens and descends

Intercostal muscles are supplied by what nerves?

intercostal nerves

function of external intercostal muscles:

pull the ribs up and outward

function of internal intercostal muslces:

pull the ribs down and inward

Mechanisms of Breathing: Ventilation

amount of air in and out of alveoli

Inhalation/Inspiration is what type of process?

active process

Expiration/Exhalation is what type of process?

passive process

What happens in the inhalation/inspiration mechanism of breathing?

brain sends impulses to respiratory ms and the thoracic cavity increases in length and diameter

What happens in the expiration/exhalation mechanism of breathing?

impulses from brain decrease causing respiratory muscles to relax. Elastic tissue recoils and alveoli are compressed

Forceful exhalation occurs via what?

internal intercostals

During inhalation the lungs expand and what happens to the intrapulmonic pressure?

it falls below atmospheric pressure

The abitlity of tissue in the lungs to ___ is essential


Air enters the system until what?

intrapulmonic pressure equals atmospheric pressure

During exhalation the lungs are compressed when what happens?

The thorax recoils

Air is forced out of the lungs until when?

the intrapulmonic pressure equals the atmospheric pressure

Parietal Pressure:

the pressure exerted by 1 gas in a mixture of gases or in a liquid

The percentage of O2 and CO2 in inhaled air is what?

21% O2
0.3% CO2

What is the percentage of O2 and CO2 in exhaled air?

16% O2
4.5% CO2

External Respiration: Alveolar air PO2:

approx 100mmHg

External Respiration: Arterial Blood PO2:

approx 100mmHg

External Respiration: Venous Blood PO2:

approx 37mmHg

The alveolar PO2 is ___ than the PO2 of the incoming blood


What gas exits the pulmonary capillaries and enters the alveoli due to differences in PO2?


What happens if alveolar ventilation is inadequate?

arterioles redirect blood flow to where PO2 is higher

What happens in the arterioles if alveolar ventilation is increased?

the arterioles dilate to increase blood flow to these capillaries

Internal Respiration: Arterial Blood PO2:

100 mmHg

Internal Respiration: Intersitial fluid PO2:

60 mmHg

Internal Respiration: Capillary PO2:

as low as 1 mmHg

Capillary PO2 is greater than tissue PO2 because why?

O2 diffuses down the pressure gradient

CO2 ____ tissues and ___ capillaries due to differences in what?

exits and enters and due to differences in PO2

What is the Bohr Effect?

increased PO2 and decreased affinity between hemoglobin and O2

What is the Haldare Effect?

increased CO2 loading due to drop in O2 levels

What is hypoxia and what does it result in?

inadequate O2 delivery to tissues, results in cyanosis

Hypoxia is caused due to what? (4 things)

1.Anemia: decreased in RBC's or hemoglobin
2. Ischemia: impaired circulation
3. Histotoxins:body cells unable to use O2
4. Hypoxemia:decrease in arterial PO2

Pulmonary Volumes: Tidal Volume:

amount of air in a normal inhalation+exhalation

Pulmonary Volumes: Minute Respiratory Volume:

amount of air inhaled+exhaled in 1 minute

Pulmonary Volumes: Inspiratory Reserve:

amount of air beyond tidal volume, that can be taken in with the deepest possible inhalation

Pulmonary Volumes: Expiratory Reserve:

amount of air beyond tidal volume that canbe expelled with the most forceful exhalation

Pulmonary Volumes: Vital Capacity:

amount of air involved in the deepest inhalation followed by the most forceful exhalation

Pulmonary Volumes: Residual Air:

amount of air remaining in lungs after the most forceful exhalation, it ensures that there is some air in the lungs at all times for exchange of gases between breaths

Pulmonary Volumes: Anatomical Dead Space:

portion of air that doesn't get to alveoli and can't take place in gas exchange (approx 30% of tidal volume)

If alveoli are prevented from gas exchange they become part of what?

dead space

Pulmonary Volumes: Physiological Dead Space:

Anatomical dead space+Alveolar dead space

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