Anatomy-divided into two portions:
1.) upper respiratory tract: outside of cavity (like a tree trunk) ex: nose, pharynx, larynx
2.) Lower Respiratory Tract: inside of cavity (like branches of a tree) ex: trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
Anatomy- Entire respiratory tract is lined with what?
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium (mucus blanket) until you get to the terminal bronchioles
air distribution, gas exchange, filters, warms+humidifies air, influences sound production, plays a role in
What makes up the external portion of the nose?
bony and cartilaginous framework covered with skin (many sebaceous glands)
what is the path of the nose starting with the nostrils and ending with the nasal passages?
nostrils (anterior nares) open into vestibule which contains coarse hairs that help to block entry of dust, which opens into the respiratory portion of each nasal passage
Internal Portion of the Nose
nasal cavity lies between the mouth (palative bone) and cranial cavity (ethmoid bone)
turbinates (internal portion of nose)
separate each nasal cavity into 3 passageways (superior, middle and inferior meati)
posterior nares (internal portion of nose)
openings which allow air to pass from nasal cavity into pharynx
Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium contains ____ that produce ______, also has a ___ ___ ___.
goblet cells, mucus, rich blood stores
____ ___ in nasal cavity detect vaporizes chemicals and are located where in the nasal cavity?
Located on the roof of the nasal cavity, Olfactory receptors
air passageway filters, warms + humidifies air, chemically examines all for harmful substances, sense of smell
Anatomy of the pharynx (throat)
12.5cm (5") long, located in front of cervical vertebrae, made of muscle, lined with a mucus membrane
posterior nares to the soft palate, contains pharyngeal tonsils, soft palate covers during swallowing, opening of Eustachian tubes
The larynx is located ____ and surrounded by the ___ and ___
between the pharynx and the trachea, surrounded by the thyroid gland and carotid arteries
What makes up the structure of the larynx and what does it do?
firm cartilage to keep air passageways open
What are the three functions of the larynx?
warms, filters, humidifies air
What is the approximate length and diameter of the trachea?
11cm (4.5") long
approx. 2.5cm (1") in diameter
What is the trachea made of and why?
Smooth ms and elastic CT embedded with C-shaped rings of cartilage (to keep the trachea open).
Openings at the back of the cartilage surrounding the trachea allow what to happen?
expansion of the trachea to allow food to pass through
What are the four "levels"/parts of the Bronchial tree?
The right primary bronchi is __ than the left, thus is it more prone to what?
larger than the left causing it to be more prone to aspiration
The cartilaginous rings that partially surround the trachea end when they reach the ___.
What are bronchioles made of and what does this allow them to do?
a complete layer of circular smooth ms which allows change in diameter and resistance to air flow
The alveoli are made of ___ cells which for what type of tissue?
made of alveolar type 2 cells which form simple squamous epithelium
Decreased surface tension in the alveoli is what between what?
is a force of attraction between H2O molecules
The surfactant lining the Alveoli keep what from happening?
keeps the alveoli from collapsing/sticking shut as air moves in and out
The spaces between the alveoli contain what type of tissue to promote what?
contain elastic CT to promote exhalation
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ___ and ___ (the barrier is only .004mm thick)
alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium
What is the shape of the diaphragm and what does it separate?
dome-shaped muscle that separates thoracic and abdominal cavities
What happens in the inhalation/inspiration mechanism of breathing?
brain sends impulses to respiratory ms and the thoracic cavity increases in length and diameter
What happens in the expiration/exhalation mechanism of breathing?
impulses from brain decrease causing respiratory muscles to relax. Elastic tissue recoils and alveoli are compressed
During inhalation the lungs expand and what happens to the intrapulmonic pressure?
it falls below atmospheric pressure
Air is forced out of the lungs until when?
the intrapulmonic pressure equals the atmospheric pressure
What happens if alveolar ventilation is inadequate?
arterioles redirect blood flow to where PO2 is higher
What happens in the arterioles if alveolar ventilation is increased?
the arterioles dilate to increase blood flow to these capillaries
CO2 ____ tissues and ___ capillaries due to differences in what?
exits and enters and due to differences in PO2
Hypoxia is caused due to what? (4 things)
1.Anemia: decreased in RBC's or hemoglobin
2. Ischemia: impaired circulation
3. Histotoxins:body cells unable to use O2
4. Hypoxemia:decrease in arterial PO2
Pulmonary Volumes: Inspiratory Reserve:
amount of air beyond tidal volume, that can be taken in with the deepest possible inhalation
Pulmonary Volumes: Expiratory Reserve:
amount of air beyond tidal volume that canbe expelled with the most forceful exhalation
Pulmonary Volumes: Vital Capacity:
amount of air involved in the deepest inhalation followed by the most forceful exhalation
Pulmonary Volumes: Residual Air:
amount of air remaining in lungs after the most forceful exhalation, it ensures that there is some air in the lungs at all times for exchange of gases between breaths
Pulmonary Volumes: Anatomical Dead Space:
portion of air that doesn't get to alveoli and can't take place in gas exchange (approx 30% of tidal volume)