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40 terms

Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

Brief Classification of the Domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
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organelles
Prokaryotic cells are very small, and except for ribosomes, they do not have cytoplasmic ________.
bacteria
metabolically diverse with some being heterotrophic by absorption, autotrophic by chemosynthesis or photosynthesis
bacteria
motile forms move by flagella consisting of a single filament
nitrogen fixed bacteria
aerobic heterotrophs that are important ecologically because they supply the world's organisms with fixed nitrogen for making proteins
decomposer bacteria
absorb nutrients from dead organisms and thus are important in the recycling of materials formerly part of other organisms
pathogenic bacteria
cause disease
bacillus-shaped
Few selected diseases they cause: Bacillus (anthrax); Clostridium (tetanus, botulism, gas gangrene); Salmonella (typhoid fever, food poisoning): Mycobacterium (Tuberculosis, leprosy); Pseudomonas (pneumonia, burn infections); Chlamydia (most common STD in U.S.); Rickettsia (Rocky Mtn. spotted fever); E. Coli (traveler's diarrhea, food poisoning); Bordetella (whooping cought); Helicobacter (ulcers in stomach); Haemophilus (conjunctivitis/pinkeye); Yersina (plague)
Coccus-shaped
Listed are a few selected genera and the diseases they cause: Staphylococcus (boils, skin infections, toxic shock syndrome); Streptococcus (stept throat, tooth cavities, flesh- eating bacteria, pneumonia); Neisseria (gonorrhea, meningitis); Vibrio (epidemic cholera).
Spirillum-shaped
Listed are a few selected genera and the diseases they cause: Tremponoma (syphilis); Borrelia (Lyme's diseases).
Antibiotic producing bacteria
Streptomycin produces streptomycin
Fermentation bacteria
anaerobic bacteria that utilized fermentation
Cyanobacteria
these bacteria are ecologically important because they are photosynthetic using chlorophyll a (note: chlorophyll not contained in chloroplasts, but contained in thylakoids); contain phycocyanin (blue-green pigment) in addition to chlorophyll; can be unicellular or filamentous; some are nitrogen-fixing; contain gelatinous sheath. Examples: Nostoc, Oscillatoria and Anabaena (all filamentous)
Archaea
distinguishable from bacteria by their unique rRNA base sequence and their distinctive cell/plasma membrane and cell wall chemistry.
archaea
many are autrophic by chemosynthesis; some are heterotrophic by absorption.
archaea
these represent some of the most primitive life-forms on earth and live in extreme or anaerobic environments
methanogens
Domain: Archaea - these release methane; live in swamps and sewage treatment plants and the guts of animals (cause flatulence). Essential to the ecology of the planet because swamp gas methane is converted to carbon dioxide, a major source of carbon for plants. Natural gas used for heating is 98% methane provided by ______
halophiles
Domain: Archaea- "salt loving"; Live in bodies of water with high concentrations of salt such as the Great Salt Lake in Utah and the Dead Sea in Mideast Asia
Thermoacidophiles
Domain: Archaea- "heat and acid loving"; Live in hot sulphur springs such as the sulphur springs in Yellowstone National Park
Eukarya
Eukaryotic, unicellular to multicellular organisms that have a membrane-bound nucleus containing several chromosomes. Sexual reproduction is common. Each kingdom has specializations that distinguish it from other kingdoms.
fungi
domain: eukarya; kingdom _____ : multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic by absorption (saprotrophic), form nonmotile spores during both asexual and sexual reproduction as part of the haplontonic life cycle, lack flagella in all cycle stages
lichens
kingdom: fungi; phylum: ______ : a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a cyanobacterium or a green algae
protista
domain: Eukarya; kingdom: _____ - eukaryotic, unicellular organisms and their immediate multicellular descendents; most have sexual reproduction. Ex. Protozoans, amoebas, ciliates, zooflagellates, sporozoans, slime molds, algae
fungi
Soil and dung molds, black bread molds, cup fungi, morels, truffles, yeast, powdery mildews, ergots, blights, mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, smuts, shelf fungi, bracket fungi, ringworm, athlete's foot are all examples of ______
saprotrophic heterotrophs
Fungi are _____ ______ that is, they externally digest dead organic matter before absorbing the products
fungi
____ have nonmotile spores that form during asexual and sexual reproduction
fungi
body of most ____ are made of filaments called hyphae
hypha
elongated cylinder containing mass of cytoplasm and hundreds of haploid (1N) nuclei; which may or may not be divided by cross walls
mycelium
body of a fungi is called the ____
mycelium
a collection of hyphae.
sporangium
a spore producing structure
haplotonic
All fungi have the ____ life cycle
wind blown spores
most fungi reproduce through the production of ____ ____ _____ on fruiting bodies
food vacuoles
formed by phacogytosis; pinches off of the plasma membrane and encloses a food particle
contratile vacuoles
pushes excess water out in animal cells
rhizopoda
Domain Eukarya; Kingdom Protista; Phylum _____ - amoeba, extension of the cells
ciliophora
Domain Eukarya; Kingdom Protista; Phylum _____ - swim with cilia
zoomastigophora
Domain Eukarya; Kingdom Protista; Phylum _____ - whip-like flagella
apicomplexa
Domain Eukarya; Kingdom Protista; Phylum _____ - gliding
plasmodium
the body of all slime molds
physarum
a slime mold that demonstrates protoplasmic streaming; branches out to reproduce