25 terms

DNA Quiz

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RNA
ribonucleic acid
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
Nucleotide Bases in RNA
Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine
Nucleotide Bases in DNA
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
Functions of RNA
Transfer genetic code out of nucleus, translate genetic code into proteins
Function of DNA
Stores genetic information (hereditary material) which controls cell function
Where is RNA found?
Nucleus, ribosome, cytoplasm
Where is DNA found?
In the nucleus only
Major Types of RNA
Messenger (mRNA), Transfer (tRNA), Ribosomal, (rRNA)
Steps of DNA Replication
1. The Helicase enzyme unzips the DNA by breaking down the hydrogen bonds between the bases, 2. The polmerase brings in new bases and starts the bonding, 3. Each open strand is bonded with new nucleotide bases
How DNA can accomplish its functions
Must be protected: never leave the cell nucleus, has numerous copies, Molecule must be readable; accessible to RNA, Must be Stable: can pass unchanged from generation to generation.
DNA Structure Components
5 carbon sugar: deoxyribose, Phosphate group, nucleotides
Protein Synthesis
The process of making proteins from DNA
Frederick Griffith
1928, Tried and failed to find pneumonia vaccines, saw that hereditary material can be altered and first discovered DNA (although called it transformation agent)
Mutation
A permanent change in the sequence of a DNA gene
Causes of Mutations
Copying errors, environmental damage such as sunlight, smoking, and radiation
Types of Mutations
Insertion: adding one or more bases, Deletion: Getting rid of one or more bases, Substitution: substituting one or more bases for other bases, Frame Shift: a mutation that cause a change in the whole rest of the DNA sequence, Silent Mutation: a mutation that does not change the protein because the new codon makes the same amino acid
Oswald Avery
1944, discovered DNA as genetic material, proved not proteins, isolated just DNA from S strain and R strain changed
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
Bacteriophage blender experiment, proteins with sulfur, DNA with phosphorus, proved it was DNA
Erwin Chargaff
1949, realized everything had 4 nucleotide bases, and ratio
Rosalind Franklin + Wilkins
1952, took crystalography pictures, photo 51 showed that phophate bases were on the outside
Linus Pauling
discovered alpha helix, discovered that chemical bonding creates helixes
Beadle and Tatum
studied neurospora crassa, enyzmes necessary and vitamins
Transcription
the transfer of genetic information from the DNA to mRNA, A. RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA strand in an area specific to the protein to be created, B. RNA nucleotides pair with each DNA base on one DNA strand, RNA polymerase bonds the RNA nucleotides, C. The messenger RNA leaves the nucleus and travels to the ribosome, DNA rewinds
Translation
taking the message from mRNA and decoding the message from the language of nucleic acid to the language of a protein, A. the mRNA arrives at the ribosome, B. the mRNA binds the ribosome at the start codon (AUG) C. the amino acids are bonded one at a time, D. At a stop codon the mRNA stops translating the polypeptide (the protein is released)
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