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US History Chapter 9-12 Test Review

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Part of the "democratizing" of politics during the age of Jackson was the elimination of ________for voting and holding office
property qualifications
During John Quincy Adams' presidency, the politician who prepared for the next election by relying on his military reputation and portraying himself as losing the presidency in 1824 due to the "corrupt bargain" was
Andrew Jackson
The basic concept underlying the "spoils system" was that party workers must be rewarded with _______ ____________ after a successful campaign.
Political Office
One of the "fundamental tenets of Jacksonian Democracy" was that
Ordinary Americans an do anything
Jackson's advisers who did not hold regular cabinet appointments were called the
Kitchen Cabinet
Jackson's view of the presidency differed from his predecessor's primarily in his belief that the
the president was the direct representative of all people
Other than Jackson's personal popularity, the main campaign issue in the presidential election of 1832 was
whether not the US renew the charter of the bank of the United States
Jackson defended his veto of the charter of the Second National Bank on the grounds that the bank was _______ ____________, despite the Supreme Court.
unconstitutional
Jackson's attitude toward nullification was to _______ because of his devotion to the Union.
to oppose it
Jackson's policy toward the Native Americans was to_____________ to lands west of the Mississippi
remove them
The Native American nation forced to move from Georgia as a result of Jackson's policies were the
Cherokees
Jackson opposed John Marshall's rulings about the Cherokee Nation in Georgia because he believed no ______________ could be allowed to exist within the United States.
that no independent nation
South Carolina's challenge to the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 is called the
Nullification Crisis
The Southern political thinker who justified Southern resistance to the Tariff of 1828 was
John Calhoun
The new political coalition which emerged to challenge Democratic control in the 1830s was called the
The Wigs
The unifying principle of the Whig party was opposition to
Andrew Jackson
The Whig party's strategy in the election of 1836 was to run several candidates in the hope that the _________________ would decide the election.
house of representatives
Martin Van Buren's response to the Panic of 1837 was to follow __________ to economic troubles.
A hands off
In the election of 1840 the Whig's presidential nominee, who was a former military hero whose political opinions were largely unknown, was
William Henry Harrison
During the election of 1840, the Whigs portrayed Harrison as
living in a log cabin and drinking hard cider
Immediately after Harrison's inauguration Harrison died, was succeeded by the doctrinaire ___________, and the political climate of the country changed dramatically.
John Tyler
English authors Frances Trollope and Charles Dickens both visited the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century and concluded that Americans were
Crude
The famous book in which Alexis de Tocqueville analyzed American society was
Democracy in America
For Tocqueville, the most striking condition of American society was its
equality
In the early nineteenth century the American population was ________ about every 20 years.
doubling
The most significant development in urban population trends from 1820 to 1850 was the emergence of
new towns
A typical theme of the Second Great Awakening was that people could take their _________ into their own hands.
Salvation
Evangelist Charles Grandison Finney's success depended upon ________ through personal testimony of salvation.
emotional release
The communitarian group whose members were celibate, held their property in common, valued simplicity and industriousness, stressed equality of labor, and practiced a joyful and fervent religion was
the Shakers
Joseph Smith was founder of the
The Mormons
The Illinois town founded by Mormon leader Joseph Smith as a semi-independent state within the federal Union was
Nauvoo
The pioneer in developing methods for educating deaf people who opened a school for deaf students in 1817 was
Thomas Gallaudet
The name most closely associated with the reform of institutions for the insane was
Dorothea Dix
During the 1820s Americans' per capita consumption of ________________ increased to the highest point ever in American experience.
Alcohol
The effectiveness of the temperance movement was greatly enhanced by the correlation between alcoholic consumption and
crime
The organization of reformed drunkards which focused on reclaiming alcoholics from the gutter was the
The Washingtonians
Catholic immigrants from Germany and Ireland often objected to demands for _________ of all alcohol.
prohibition
Although involved in many reforms, William Lloyd Garrison is best known for his activities in the cause of
abolitionism
William Lloyd Garrison's views on slavery might best be described as
uncompromising
The most influential black abolitionist was
Frederick Douglas
In his autobiography and speeches, Frederick Douglass insisted that full social, political, and _______________equality for blacks was required
economic
An important factor in encouraging the growth of the women's rights movement was the female abolitionists' recognition that, like the slaves, they were born into the _________________, which destined them for menial roles in society.
a cast system
One of the few advocates of women's rights who did not begin her career in the abolitionist movement and who made a frontal assault on all forms of sexual discrimination in Women in the Nineteenth Century was
Margaret Fuller
The co-organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention and author of its Declaration of Sentiments was
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony played a prominent role in the __________________ because she was the first to see the need for thorough organization
Woman's Rights Movements
Between ______ and _______, American culture evolved into a distinctive and American culture.
1830 and 1850
The only American novelist before 1830 to use the national heritage effectively was
James Fennimore Cooper
The leading light of New York literature and author of such humorous tales as "Rip Van Winkle" was
Washington Irving
Both Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau objected to many of society's restrictions on the
Individual
In the book Walden, __________ both described his experiment of living without the products of civilization and attacked the unthinking conformity of the average American.
Henry David Thorough
The American transcendentalist who defended his refusal to pay taxes to support the Mexican War in his essay "Civil Disobedience" was
Henry David Thorough
The American writer whose works are filled with examples of wild imagination and fascination with mystery, fright, and the occult was
Edgar Alan Poe
Probably the best writer whose subject was puritan New England was
Nathanial Hawthorne
One of Hawthorne's greatest works was his grim, but sympathetic analysis of the consequences of adultery,
Scarlet Letter
__________ shared Nathaniel Hawthorne's dark view of human nature.
Mellville
Herman Melville's book which your text calls "one of the finest novels written by an American" is
Moby Dick
Walt Whitman's book of poems in rambling free verse on commonplace topics in coarse language was
Leaves Of Grass
Currier and Ives achieved tremendous success in the production and sale of charming
lithographs
One of the most effective leaders of the common school movement was
Horrace Man
By the 1850s the common school movement had succeeded in establishing free elementary schools and public institutions for ______________ in every state outside the South.
teacher training
The cultural center for American art and music in the Jacksonian America was
Philadelphia
One example of why ______________ became the center of trans-Allegheny culture was that it was in Cincinnati that the first Beethoven symphony was performed in America.
Cincinnati
The most basic goal of the __________ movement was education for democracy.
common school
The typically romantic architecture which valued irregularity of style and is represented by the Smithsonian Institution is called
American Gothic
The greatest expression of Romanticism in the United States was through
Transcendentalism
"The American Scholar" was a plea for Americans to be American by
Ralph Emerson
Most American novelists of the early national period slavishly imitated
British writers
The staunch states' rights advocate who became president when William Henry Harrison died was
John Tyler
Before Texas gained its independence in 1836, a major conflict between American settlers in Texas and the Mexican government was Mexico's abolition of
Slavery
According to your text, in the battle over the independence of Texas, the slaughters at Goliad and at _______, a former mission, made peaceful settlement of the dispute with Mexico almost impossible.
The Alamo
The leader of the Texas independence movement and first president of the Republic of Texas was
Sam Houston
Manifest Destiny might best be described as the belief that ___________ were God's chosen people.
Americans
One significant aspect of life on the westward trail in the 1840s was that it was especially taxing for
Woman
Mexico's main grievance against the United States was based upon the annexation of
Texas
In the ________________ the president led the nation into war without a formal declaration of war from Congress.
Mexican War
The campaign against Mexico City was commanded by General
Winfield Scott
The Mexican War was ended by the Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo
Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States gained
New Mexico and Upper California
Slavery erupted as a divisive issue after the _________________ over the question of slavery in the territory conquered from Mexico.
Mexican War
The original advocate of organizing new territories on the basis of "popular sovereignty" was
Lewis Cass
Zachary Taylor was chosen to run for president by the __________ in 1848 because of his military career.
Wigs
In 1849 approximately 80,000 Americans migrated to ___________ because of the start of the gold rush.
California
California's possible admission as a free state caused such a furor because it broke the ______ in the Senate between slave and free states.
Balance in Power
The senator who initially organized the legislative program which became the Compromise of 1850 was
Henry Clay
When Zachary Taylor died, the politician who became president and was instrumental in achieving the Compromise of 1850 was
Millard Fillmore
The Compromise of 1850 included admitting ________ as a free state.
California
What was the public reaction to the Compromise of 1850? Mass meetings throughout the country were held to __________________ it.
Support